Oxygen aggregation kinetics, thermal donors and carbon-oxygen defect formation in silicon containing carbon and tin

T. Angeletos, E.N. Sgourou, A. Andrianakis, A. Diamantopoulou, A. Chroneos, C.A. Londos

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    Abstract

    Localized vibrational mode spectroscopy measurements on Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) samples subjected to isothermal annealing at 450 °C are reported. First, we studied the effect of carbon (C) and tin (Sn) isovalent dopants on the aggregation kinetics of oxygen. It is determined that the reduction rate of oxygen is described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation in accordance with previous reports. The activation energy related with the reaction rate constant of the process is calculated to increase from Cz-Si, to C-doped Cz-Si (CCz-Si), to Sn-doped Cz-Si contained C (SnCz-Si). This is attributed to the presence of the isovalent dopants that may impact both the kinetics of the oxygen atoms and also may lead to the formation of other oxygen-related clusters. Second, we studied the effect of Sn on the formation and evolution of carbon-oxygen (C-O) defects. It was determined that the presence of Sn suppresses the formation of the C-O defects as indicated by the reduction in the strength of the 683, 626, and 586 cm−1 well-known bands of CsOi defect. The phenomenon is attributed to the association of Sn with C atoms that may prevent the pairing of O with C. Third, we investigated the effect of C and Sn on the formation of thermal donors (TDs). Regarding carbon our results verified previous reports that carbon suppresses the formation of TDs. Interestingly, when both C and Sn are present in Si, very weak bands of TDs were observed, although it is known that Sn alone suppress their formation. This may be attributed to the competing strains of C and Sn in the Si lattice.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number4923388
    JournalJournal of Applied Physics
    Volume118
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2015

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright (2015) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Angeletos, T. , Sgourou, E.N. , Andrianakis, A. , Diamantopoulou, A. , Chroneos, A. and Londos, C.A. (2015) Oxygen aggregation kinetics, thermal donors and carbon-oxygen defect formation in silicon containing carbon and tin. Journal of Applied Physics, volume 118 (1): Article number 4923388 and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923388.

    Keywords

    • Activation energy
    • Defects
    • Doping (additives)
    • Isothermal annealing
    • Kinetics
    • Oxygen
    • Rate constants
    • Silicon
    • Aggregation kinetics
    • Czochralski silicon
    • Effect of carbons
    • Formation and evolutions
    • Johnson Mehl Avrami equation
    • Reduction rate
    • Spectroscopy measurements
    • Vibrational modes

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