The bi-directional linkage between the power grid and electric vehicles (EVs) enables flexible, cheap and fast-responding use of vehicle batteries in the grid. However, the battery aging effects due to the additional operation cycles caused by Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service and the concern of the battery degradation are the main reason that keeps the customer from being the named prosumer of the grid. This paper proposes a novel active battery anti-aging V2G scheduling approach. Firstly, to evaluate the battery aging effect in V2G service, the battery degradation phenomenon is quantified by a novel use of rain-flow cycle counting (RCC) algorithm. Then, the V2G scheduling is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem, in which the minimal battery degradation and grid load fluctuation are designed as the optimization objectives. Finally, a multi-population collaborative mechanism, which is particularly designed for the V2G scheduling problem, is also developed to improve the practicability and performance of the heuristic optimization based V2G scheduling method. The proposed methodologies are verified by numerical analysis, which highlights that the proposed V2G scheduling method can minimize battery charge/discharge cycles by optimizing the time and scale of each V2G participant while providing the same services to the grid as expected.
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- Electric vehicle
- active battery anti-aging and heuristic algorithm
- vehicle to grid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science(all)
- Materials Science(all)