Optimal switching temperature for multi-objective heated-charging of lithium-ion batteries at subzero temperatures

Haijun Ruan, Bingxiang Sun, Jiuchun Jiang, Xiaojia Su, Xitian He, Shichang Ma, Wenzhong Gao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Subzero-temperature charging for lithium-ion batteries is an unsolved challenge due to dramatically low charging speed and capacity and a high risk of lithium deposition. Here, we propose a multi-objective optimization framework for the heated-charging, where the battery is rapidly warmed up to enhance its performance followed by fast charging. The echelon-current charging approach is developed with the boundary of maximum acceptable charging current at different states, which facilitates fast charging while preventing lithium deposition. Three critical and competing objectives, the heated-charging time and energy consumption, and charging capacity, are formulated, enabling the framework capable of comprehensively assessing the heated-charging method. We systematically discuss the influence of witching temperature from heating to charging on three charging objectives. With the optimization algorithm, an optimal switching temperature is determined to achieve not only fast charging with a high charging capacity but also low energy consumption. Experimental and simulation results validate that the proposed optimal charging method can charge the battery to 95% state-of-charge in 27 min at −30 °C while circumventing lithium plating. The charging comparison confirms that the proposed method boosts the charging speed by 26 times, which provides an opportunity to develop a fast charging method in extremely cold conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number232775
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Early online date10 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 52177206 ), the Joint Fund of Ministry of Education of China for Equipment Pre-research (Grant No. 8091B022130 ), the Faraday Institution's Industrial Fellowship (FIIF-013), the EPSRC Impact Acceleration Award (EP/X52556X/1), the EPSRC Faraday Institution's Multi-Scale Modelling Project (EP/S003053/1, grant number FIRG003 ), the EPSRC Joint UK-India Clean Energy Centre (JUICE) (EP/P003605/1), and the EPSRC Integrated Development of Low-Carbon Energy Systems (IDLES) project (EP/R045518/1).


  • Lithium-ion battery
  • Low temperature
  • Charging
  • Lithium plating
  • Multi-objective optimization
  • Heating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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