Optimal Design of the EV Charging Station with Retired Battery Systems Against Charging Demand Uncertainty

Jianwei Li, Shucheng He, Qingqing Yang, Tianyi Ma, Zhongbao Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper proposes a multi-objective sizing method of the retired battery integrating with the photovoltaic solar energy used for the electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) against the charging demand uncertainty. The proposed size optimization approach employs NSGA-II to minimize the renewable energy waste, energy purchased from the external grid, as well as the cost characterized by the net present value. Especially for the remaining life prediction, this paper leverages the calendar-life degradation model by integrating battery cycle-life counting method. Also, in this study, the charging uncertainty is built as different charging patterns for various EVCS scenarios with different combinations. Furthermore, the techno-economic attractions of retired batteries are verified by comprehensive comparison with new batteries. Case studies are implemented with real-world data and the results show that under the proposed sizing method, the EVCS could achieve a 29.4% cost reduction in the long-term operation with the retired batteries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 May 2022


  • retired battery
  • photovoltaic (PV)
  • electric vehicle (EV)
  • charging station
  • NSGA


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