Optimal Design of the EV Charging Station with Retired Battery Systems Against Charging Demand Uncertainty

Jianwei Li, Shucheng He, Qingqing Yang, Tianyi Ma, Zhongbao Wei

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)


    This article proposes a multiobjective sizing method of the retired battery integrating with the photovoltaic solar energy used for the electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) against the charging demand uncertainty. The proposed size optimization approach employs non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) to minimize the renewable energy waste, energy purchased from the external grid, as well as the cost characterized by the net present value produced in 20 years. Especially for the remaining life prediction of retired batteries, this article leverages the calendar-life degradation model by integrating the battery cycle-life counting method. Also, in this article, the charging demand uncertainty is built as different charging patterns for various EVCS scenarios with different combinations of fast- and slow-charging demand. Furthermore, the technoeconomic attractions of retired batteries are verified by a comprehensive comparison with the new batteries. Case studies are implemented with real-world data, and the results show that under the proposed sizing method, the EVCS could achieve a 29.4% cost reduction in the long-term operation with the retired batteries.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3262-3273
    Number of pages12
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
    Issue number3
    Early online date19 May 2022
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023

    Bibliographical note

    Funding Information:
    This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2021YFB2501504 and in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 52172354

    Publisher Copyright:
    © 2005-2012 IEEE.


    • retired battery
    • photovoltaic (PV)
    • electric vehicle (EV)
    • charging station
    • NSGA


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