The accurate characterization of flow from urban surfaces to sewer/stormwater systems is important for urban drainage design and flood modeling/risk identification. However, the geometrical complexity and large variety of drainage structures (linking elements) available makes model calibration and verification difficult. In this study an extensive comparison between experimentally measured and numerically modeled flow characteristics in the vicinity of ten different designs of manhole grate was performed under drainage flow in subcritical conditions. Using a 2-D surface PIV (sPIV) system the work presents the first detailed characterization of velocity fields around these linking elements. In addition, it provides the first detailed verification of the ability of a 2-D numerical model to describe both velocity fields and drainage flows. The overall comparison shows a close relationship between numerical and the experimental results with some higher inflows in the experimental results as a consequence of a localized transition from weir to orifice condition near the void areas of the grates. It was also noted that velocity differences decreased further from the manhole, due mainly to the more directional flow. Overall the work demonstrates the potential for further use of 2-D numerical models to describe flow conditions at linking elements, either directly within modeling simulations or indirectly via the characterization of energy loss coefficients.
- experimental versus numerical comparison
- flood modeling
- manhole grate geometry
- urban drainage inlet flows