On the application of nanostructured electrodes prepared by Ti/TiO2/WO3 " template" : A case study of removing toxicity of indigo using visible irradiation

T.T. Guaraldo, T.B. Zanoni, S.I.C. de Torresi, V.R. Gonçales, G.J. Zocolo, D.P. Oliveira, M.V.B. Zanoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

New assays with HepG2 cells indicate that Indigo Carmine (IC), a dye that is widely used as additive in many food and pharmaceutical industries exhibited cytotoxic effects. This work describes the development of a bicomponent nanostructured Ti/TiO2/WO3 electrode prepared by “template” method and investigates its efficiency in a photoelectrocatalytic method by using visible light irradiation and applied potential of 1 V. After 2 h of treatment there are reduction of 97% discoloration, 62% of mineralization and formation of three byproducts assigned as: 2-amine-5-sulfo-benzoic acid, 2,3-dioxo-14-indole-5-sulfonic acid, and 2-amino-α-oxo-5-sulfo-benzeneacetic acid were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. But, cytotoxicity was completely removed after 120 min of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-593
Number of pages8
JournalChemosphere
Volume91
Issue number5
Early online date18 Jan 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Indigo carmine
  • Food dye
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Genotoxicity
  • Photoelectrocatalytic treatment
  • Byproducts

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