Scholars have long argued that gender impacts how space can be occupied in traditional locations, such as bazaars. However, in deeply divided societies an added factor of privilege in relation to ethnosectarian identity has to be considered. This article uses an intersectional lens to understand how people occupy space in the bazaar in Kirkuk, Iraq. It pays particular attention to the intersection of ethnosectarian identity (Kurd, Sunni Arab, Turkmen) and gender. The article contributes to the understanding of how the layers of symbolic violence that people face (or do not face) in their daily lives affect their attitudes and behaviours in the public space. Theoretically, it builds on the traditional forms of intersectional analysis and applies them to deeply divided societies, adding unique insight into how intersectionality can be used to identify power structures and how these in turn influence interactions in the everyday, with implications for peace and conflict. It thus explores the different experiences people have based on both gender and ethnosectarian identity, in order to shed light on the often-ignored heterogeneous nature of group actions analysed in conflict-affected societies.
Bibliographical noteThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- Peace and Conflict