Observation of the reactions between iron ore and metallurgical fluxes for the alternative ironmaking HIsarna process

James Whiston, Stephen Spooner, Koen Meijer, Zushu Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


This work investigates the melting behaviour of iron ore with calcium-based fluxes, including lime, limestone and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag. With an aim to explore the potential kinetic benefits that can be obtained through the formation of a liquid medium on the overall productivity of HIsarna. A HT-CLSM was used to rapidly heat and observation the interface between a given pair of chosen materials in-situ. Through this method, the rate at which the reaction progressed and the possible disruptive phenomenon that may occur was observed directly. The molten interface of fluxed materials is compared against each other offering insight into relative dissolution rate. Each flux shows promise of increasing ore fluidity to a varying degree with limestone generating above a 60% liquid fraction in the 1400°C reaction temperature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1142-1150
Number of pages9
JournalIronmaking and Steelmaking
Issue number10
Early online date16 Jul 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis GroupThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use,distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


This work was supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [grant number EP/N011368/1].


  • HIsarna
  • calcination
  • fluxing
  • high-temperature reactions
  • in-situ
  • ironmaking
  • reaction kinetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Observation of the reactions between iron ore and metallurgical fluxes for the alternative ironmaking HIsarna process'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this