Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes

Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Tom Ashmore, Kristof Willerton, Rhys Evans, Alan Smith, Andrew J. Murray, Brianna Stubbs, James West, Stewart W. McLure, M. Todd King, Michael S. Dodd, Cameron Holloway, Stefan Neubauer, Scott Drawer, Richard L. Veech, Julian L. Griffin, Kieran Clarke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)256-268
Number of pages13
JournalCell Metabolism
Volume24
Issue number2
Early online date27 Jul 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Ketosis
Athletes
Physical Endurance
Carbohydrates
Ketone Bodies
Muscles
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Glycolysis
Starvation
Ketones
Glycogen
Lactic Acid
Respiration
Esters
Triglycerides
Exercise
Insulin
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Cox, P. J., Kirk, T., Ashmore, T., Willerton, K., Evans, R., Smith, A., ... Clarke, K. (2016). Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metabolism, 24(2), 256-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010

Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. / Cox, Pete J.; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J.; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W.; King, M. Todd; Dodd, Michael S.; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L.; Griffin, Julian L.; Clarke, Kieran.

In: Cell Metabolism, Vol. 24, No. 2, 09.08.2016, p. 256-268.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cox, PJ, Kirk, T, Ashmore, T, Willerton, K, Evans, R, Smith, A, Murray, AJ, Stubbs, B, West, J, McLure, SW, King, MT, Dodd, MS, Holloway, C, Neubauer, S, Drawer, S, Veech, RL, Griffin, JL & Clarke, K 2016, 'Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes' Cell Metabolism, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 256-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010
Cox, Pete J. ; Kirk, Tom ; Ashmore, Tom ; Willerton, Kristof ; Evans, Rhys ; Smith, Alan ; Murray, Andrew J. ; Stubbs, Brianna ; West, James ; McLure, Stewart W. ; King, M. Todd ; Dodd, Michael S. ; Holloway, Cameron ; Neubauer, Stefan ; Drawer, Scott ; Veech, Richard L. ; Griffin, Julian L. ; Clarke, Kieran. / Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. In: Cell Metabolism. 2016 ; Vol. 24, No. 2. pp. 256-268.
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