Modified nucleotides in messenger RNA (mRNA) have been discovered over 40 years ago, but until recently little was known about which transcripts contain them and what their function is. High-throughput sequencing approaches revealed a dynamic landscape of the ‘Epitranscriptome’ for many mRNA modifications in various organisms from yeast to humans. Meanwhile, also many genes encoding mRNA-modifying enzymes and auxiliary proteins have been identified yielding functional insights by reverse genetics into their role in development and disease.
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Dezi, V., Ivanov, C., Haussmann, I. U., & Soller, M. (2016). Nucleotide modifications in messenger RNA and their role in development and disease. Biochemical Society Transactions, 44(5), 1385-1393. https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20160110