Normative Performance Measurement in Simulated Air Combat

Heikki Petteri Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Lauri Mäkinen, Don Harris

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)
    89 Downloads (Pure)


    BACKGROUND: Normative performance (NP) describes the pilots’ adherence to tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs). Until now, there has not been a global NP measurement technique for beyond visual range (BVR) air combat, and the methodology and technology related to the evaluation of NP have fallen behind the pace of the overall technical progress of distributed mission operations (DMO) training.
    METHODS: Platform-independent core air combat tasks were identified. The execution of these tasks is directed with TTPs. BVR air combat missions were flown in a DMO simulator system and the design NP was varied between missions. Observers viewed debriefs of these missions and attempted to identify TTP-regulated air combat tasks. Once identified, they scored the pilots’ NP in those tasks. The scoring was based on the level of TTP adherence and the impact a nonadherence had on the mission accomplishment.
    RESULTS: All observers were able to identify most of the TTP-regulated air combat tasks. There was a strong positive correlation between the observed and design NP scores. The overall Kappa indicated a fair agreement between the observers. The percentage of observers’ NP assessments which agreed with the design NP varied from 49.60 to 85.28% in different air combat missions. On average, 73.96% of the observers’ NP scores agreed with the design NP scores.
    CONCLUSIONS: Observers were able to accurately identify TTP-regulated tasks and score NP of these tasks during an air combat debrief. There was a moderate agreement between the observers’ NP scores. KEYWORDS: air combat, normative performance, simulation, tactics, techniques, and procedures.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)908-912
    Number of pages5
    JournalAerospace medicine and human performance
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

    This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


    • air combat
    • and procedures
    • normative performance
    • simulation
    • tactics
    • techniques

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


    Dive into the research topics of 'Normative Performance Measurement in Simulated Air Combat'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this