Newborn Screening for Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase and Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Deficiencies Using Acylcarnitines Measurement in Dried Blood Spots—A Systematic Review of Test Accuracy

Christopher Stinton, Hannah Fraser, Julia Geppert, Rebecca Johnson, Martin Connock, Samantha Johnson, Aileen Clarke, Sian Taylor Phillips

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Abstract

Background: Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiencies are rare autosomal recessive fatty acid β-oxidation disorders. Their clinical presentations are variable, and premature death is common. They are included in newborn blood spot screening programs in many countries around the world. The current process of screening, through the measurement of acylcarnitines (a metabolic by-product) in dried blood spots with tandem mass spectrometry, is subject to uncertainty regarding test accuracy.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of literature published up to 19th June 2018. We included studies that investigated newborn screening for LCHAD or MTP deficiencies by tandem mass spectrometry of acylcarnitines in dried blood spots. The reference standards were urine organic acids, blood acylcarnitine profiles, enzyme analysis in cultured fibroblasts or lymphocytes, mutation analysis, or at least 10-year follow-up. The outcomes of interest were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Assessment of titles, abstracts, and full-text papers and quality appraisal were carried out independently by two reviewers. One reviewer extracted study data. This was checked by a second reviewer.

Results: Ten studies provided data on test accuracy. LCHAD or MTP deficiencies were identified in 23 babies. No cases of LCHAD/MTP deficiencies were identified in four studies. PPV ranged from 0% (zero true positives and 28 false positives from 276,565 babies screened) to 100% (13 true positives and zero false positives from 2,037,824 babies screened). Sensitivity, specificity, and NPV could not be calculated as there was no systematic follow-up of babies who screened negative.

Conclusions: Test accuracy estimates of screening for LCHAD and MTP deficiencies with tandem mass spectrometry measurement of acylcarnitines in dried blood were variable in terms of PPVs. Screening methods (including markers and thresholds) varied between studies, and sensitivity, specificity, and NPVs are unknown.
Original languageEnglish
Article number606194
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms
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Keywords

  • newborn screening
  • LCHADD
  • Systematic review
  • test accuracy
  • LCHAD deficiency
  • newborn blood spot screening
  • MTP deficiency
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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