Nano-mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steels

Alireza Rahnama, Hiren Kotadia, Samuel Clark, Vit Janik, Seetharaman Sridhar

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Abstract

High Al Low-density steels could have a transformative effect on the light-weighting of steel structures for transportation and achieving the desired properties with the minimum amount of Ni is of great interest from an economic perspective. In this study, the mechanical properties of two duplex low-density steels, Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C-5Ni and Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C (wt.%) were investigated through nano-indentation and simulation through utilization of ab initio formalisms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) in order to establish the hardness resulting from two critical structural features (kappa-carbides and B2 intermetallic) as a function of annealing temperature (500 − 1050 ℃) and the addition of Ni. In the Ni-free sample, the calculated elastic properties of kappa-carbides were compared with those of the B2 intermetallic Fe3Al − L12, and the role of Mn in the kappa structure and its elastic properties were studied. The Ni-containing samples were found to have a higher hardness due to the B2 phase composition being NiAl rather than FeAl, with Ni-Al bonds reported to be stronger than the Fe-Al bonds. In both samples, at temperatures of 900 ℃ and above, the ferrite phase contained nano-sized discs of B2 phase, wherein the Ni-containing samples exhibited higher hardness, attributed again to the stronger Ni-Al bonds in the B2 phase. At 700 ℃ and below, the nano-sized B2 discs were replaced by micrometre sized needles of kappa in the Ni-free sample resulting in a lowering of the hardness. In the Ni-containing sample, the entire alpha phase was replaced by B2 stringers, which had a lower hardness than the Ni-Al nano-discs due to a lower Ni content in B2 stringer bands formed at 700 ℃ and below. In addition, the hardness of needle-like kappa-carbides formed in alpha phase was found to be a function of Mn content. Although it was impossible to measure the hardness of cuboid kappa particles in gamma phase because of their nano-size, the hardness value of composite phases, e.g. gamma + kappa was measured and reported. All the hardness values were compared and rationalized by bonding energy between different atoms.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9065
Number of pages12
JournalScientific Reports
Volume8
Early online date13 Jun 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2018

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hardness
steels
mechanical properties
carbides
stringers
needles
intermetallics
elastic properties
steel structures
nanoindentation
economics
micrometers
ferrites
density functional theory
annealing
composite materials
temperature
atoms
simulation

Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Keywords

  • Nano-mechanical properties
  • Fe-Mn-Al-C Low-density steel
  • Density functional theory

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Nano-mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steels. / Rahnama, Alireza; Kotadia, Hiren; Clark, Samuel; Janik, Vit; Sridhar, Seetharaman.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, 9065, 30.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rahnama, Alireza ; Kotadia, Hiren ; Clark, Samuel ; Janik, Vit ; Sridhar, Seetharaman. / Nano-mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Al-C lightweight steels. In: Scientific Reports. 2018 ; Vol. 8.
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N2 - High Al Low-density steels could have a transformative effect on the light-weighting of steel structures for transportation and achieving the desired properties with the minimum amount of Ni is of great interest from an economic perspective. In this study, the mechanical properties of two duplex low-density steels, Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C-5Ni and Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C (wt.%) were investigated through nano-indentation and simulation through utilization of ab initio formalisms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) in order to establish the hardness resulting from two critical structural features (kappa-carbides and B2 intermetallic) as a function of annealing temperature (500 − 1050 ℃) and the addition of Ni. In the Ni-free sample, the calculated elastic properties of kappa-carbides were compared with those of the B2 intermetallic Fe3Al − L12, and the role of Mn in the kappa structure and its elastic properties were studied. The Ni-containing samples were found to have a higher hardness due to the B2 phase composition being NiAl rather than FeAl, with Ni-Al bonds reported to be stronger than the Fe-Al bonds. In both samples, at temperatures of 900 ℃ and above, the ferrite phase contained nano-sized discs of B2 phase, wherein the Ni-containing samples exhibited higher hardness, attributed again to the stronger Ni-Al bonds in the B2 phase. At 700 ℃ and below, the nano-sized B2 discs were replaced by micrometre sized needles of kappa in the Ni-free sample resulting in a lowering of the hardness. In the Ni-containing sample, the entire alpha phase was replaced by B2 stringers, which had a lower hardness than the Ni-Al nano-discs due to a lower Ni content in B2 stringer bands formed at 700 ℃ and below. In addition, the hardness of needle-like kappa-carbides formed in alpha phase was found to be a function of Mn content. Although it was impossible to measure the hardness of cuboid kappa particles in gamma phase because of their nano-size, the hardness value of composite phases, e.g. gamma + kappa was measured and reported. All the hardness values were compared and rationalized by bonding energy between different atoms.

AB - High Al Low-density steels could have a transformative effect on the light-weighting of steel structures for transportation and achieving the desired properties with the minimum amount of Ni is of great interest from an economic perspective. In this study, the mechanical properties of two duplex low-density steels, Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C-5Ni and Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C (wt.%) were investigated through nano-indentation and simulation through utilization of ab initio formalisms in Density Functional Theory (DFT) in order to establish the hardness resulting from two critical structural features (kappa-carbides and B2 intermetallic) as a function of annealing temperature (500 − 1050 ℃) and the addition of Ni. In the Ni-free sample, the calculated elastic properties of kappa-carbides were compared with those of the B2 intermetallic Fe3Al − L12, and the role of Mn in the kappa structure and its elastic properties were studied. The Ni-containing samples were found to have a higher hardness due to the B2 phase composition being NiAl rather than FeAl, with Ni-Al bonds reported to be stronger than the Fe-Al bonds. In both samples, at temperatures of 900 ℃ and above, the ferrite phase contained nano-sized discs of B2 phase, wherein the Ni-containing samples exhibited higher hardness, attributed again to the stronger Ni-Al bonds in the B2 phase. At 700 ℃ and below, the nano-sized B2 discs were replaced by micrometre sized needles of kappa in the Ni-free sample resulting in a lowering of the hardness. In the Ni-containing sample, the entire alpha phase was replaced by B2 stringers, which had a lower hardness than the Ni-Al nano-discs due to a lower Ni content in B2 stringer bands formed at 700 ℃ and below. In addition, the hardness of needle-like kappa-carbides formed in alpha phase was found to be a function of Mn content. Although it was impossible to measure the hardness of cuboid kappa particles in gamma phase because of their nano-size, the hardness value of composite phases, e.g. gamma + kappa was measured and reported. All the hardness values were compared and rationalized by bonding energy between different atoms.

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