Multiple Perpetrator Rape Committed by Female Offenders: A Comparison of Solo, Duo, and 3+ Group Offenders

Miriam Wijkman, Teresa Ferraz-da-Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
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Previous studies on multiple perpetrator rapes have shown that male sexual offenders who commit their offense alone differ on offender, offense, and victim characteristics from those who commit their offense in duos and 3+ groups. For the current study, 246 female sexual offenders have been studied regarding their co-offending pattern and the differences in offender, offense, and victim characteristics. Significant differences between solo (n = 73), duos (n = 146), and 3+ group offenders (n = 27) were found for the age at the first conviction, age at the time of the index offense, performed sexual acts, physical and verbal violence, victim gender, victim relationship, victim age, and location where the abuse took place. There were four indicators that could predict the assault type. Co-offenders were more likely than solo offenders to perform penetration on a female, intrafamilial victim who they assaulted indoors. These results have implications for interventions with offenders and criminal justice authorities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-338
Number of pages18
JournalSexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (


  • female sexual offending
  • co-offending
  • multiple perpetrator rape (MPR)
  • duos


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