Multi-choice policing in Uganda

Bruce Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
74 Downloads (Pure)


Though increasing diversification of policing away from the state to non-state formal and informal agencies is a widespread pattern, it does not capture the nuances of Uganda's situation. Participative research reveals a fragmented and overlapping pattern of policing, but one that, for historical reasons, is still heavily influenced, if not controlled, by state institutions. Through its penetration of society by its local council structure, and through a process of militarization of policing units, the state has maintained a strong influence over most of the diversification. The diversification, therefore, is more one of choice than ownership. It nevertheless yields a surprising degree of choice for Ugandans for protection and/or response to crime and disorder. Such multi-choice policing does, however, demand the construction of a law and order policy that is based on incorporating all acceptable policing groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-41
JournalPolicing and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005

Bibliographical note

This is an electronic version of an article published in Policing and Society (2005)Vol. 15 (1): 19-41. Policing and Society is available online at InformaworldTM -


  • crime
  • criminal justice
  • fragmentation
  • policing
  • social problems


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