Molecular detection of pathogen DNA in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae): A review

O. A E Sparagano, M. T E P Allsopp, R. A. Mank, S. G T Rijpkema, J. V. Figueroa, F. Jongejan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

103 Citations (Scopus)


Ticks play an important role in human and veterinary medicine, in particular due to their ability to transmit a wide spectrum of pathogenic micro-organisms of protozoal, rickettsial, bacterial and viral origin. Pathogens in ticks can be identified by conventional methods such as indirect immunofluorescence, isolation in cell culture or by using histological staining techniques. However, the advent of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has resulted in tremendous improvements in the specific and sensitive detection of pathogen DNA in ticks. In this paper, literature on DNA extraction methods, PCR protocols, primers and probes, which are in use for the successful detection and identification of pathogens in ticks, are critically reviewed. Some recommendations are also given towards the end of the review.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)929-960
Number of pages32
JournalExperimental and Applied Acarology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Anaplasma
  • Babesia
  • Borrelia
  • Cowdria
  • Dengue virus
  • Ehrlichia
  • PCR
  • Primers
  • Probes
  • Rickettsia
  • TBE virus
  • Theileria
  • Ticks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science


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