Modelling of battery thermal management: A new concept of cooling using fuel

Mansour Al Qubeissi, Ali Almshahy, Ayob Mahmoud, Mushtaq T.K. Al-Asadi, Raja Mazuir Raja Ahsan Shah

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    20 Citations (Scopus)
    106 Downloads (Pure)


    Battery thermal management system (BTMS) design is crucial for its performance, which can be associated with extra costs and system complexity. Most of the current studies are focused on the BTMS design but with a little focus on the improvement of coolants. In this work, the feasibility of using combustion engine fuel for the LIB thermal management of hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. N-heptane is used as a dielectric hydrocarbon coolant in the introduced system. The thermal performance of the proposed system is investigated numerically using the CFD software ANSYS-Fluent. To benchmark and validate the system performance, a comparative study is made among other common approaches, including the use of air and 3M-Novec 7200. A variety of input parameters are accounted for, including inlet velocities and discharge rates. The results show that air cooling is the least effective method to control the battery module temperature uniformity and the Li-ion battery safety limit. At the same time, n-heptane and 3M-Novec 7200 have shown good control of the module temperature range (20 °C–40 °C) at various discharge rates and different inlet velocities. However, using n-heptane is a considerable improvement to the cost of the system and reduction in its weight and maximum temperature, compared to that using 3M-Novec 7200 coolant. For instance, at 0.1 m·s -1, n-heptane has reduced the Li-ion battery maximum temperature at 1C and 2C discharge rates by more than 7.9 °C (2.6%) and 17.9 °C (5.65%), respectively, compared to those predicted using the same battery module without cooling.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number122403
    Number of pages17
    Issue numberB
    Early online date26 Nov 2021
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2022

    Bibliographical note

    © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


    • Battery thermal management
    • Electric vehicles
    • Fuel coolant
    • Heat transfer
    • N-heptane
    • Numerical analysis

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemical Engineering(all)
    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Organic Chemistry


    Dive into the research topics of 'Modelling of battery thermal management: A new concept of cooling using fuel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this