Modeling the Producibility of 3D Printing in Polylactic Acid Using Artificial Neural Networks and Fused Filament Fabrication

M. Saleh Shaikh Mohammad Meiabadi, Mahmoud Moradi, Mojtaba Karamimoghadam, Sina Ardabili, Mahdi Bodaghi, Manouchehr Shokri, Amir Hossein Mosavi

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    11 Citations (Scopus)
    7 Downloads (Pure)


    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a highly applicable material that is used in 3D printers due to some significant features such as its deformation property and affordable cost. For improvement of the
    end-use quality, it is of significant importance to enhance the quality of fused filament fabrication (FFF)-printed objects in PLA. The purpose of this investigation was to boost toughness and to reduce the production cost of the FFF-printed tensile test samples with the desired part thickness. To remove the need for numerous and idle printing samples, the response surface method (RSM) was used. Statistical analysis was performed to deal with this concern by considering extruder temperature (ET), infill percentage (IP), and layer thickness (LT) as controlled factors. The artificial intelligence method of artificial neural network (ANN) and ANN-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were further developed to estimate the toughness, part thickness, and production-cost-dependent variables. Results were evaluated by correlation coefficient and RMSE values. According to the modeling results, ANN-GA
    as a hybrid machine learning (ML) technique could enhance the accuracy of modeling by about 7.5, 11.5, and 4.5% for toughness, part thickness, and production cost, respectively, in comparison
    with those for the single ANN method. On the other hand, the optimization results confirm that the optimized specimen is cost-effective and able to comparatively undergo deformation, which enables the usability of printed PLA objects.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number3219
    Number of pages21
    Issue number19
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Sep 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    Funding Information: Acknowledgments: A.H.M. acknowledges his financial support by Hungarian-Mexican bilateral project (2019-2.1.11-TÉT-2019-00007) and GINOP-2.2.1-18-2018-00015. We acknowledge the support of the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar within the Open-Access Publishing Programme.


    • fused filament fabrication
    • toughness
    • 3D printing
    • machine learning
    • deep learning
    • artificial intelligence
    • computational mechanics
    • materials design
    • big data
    • data science


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