Modeling of the Heat-Affected and Thermomechanically Affected Zones in a Ti-6Al-4V Inertia Friction Weld

Richard P Turner, Bama Perumal, Yu Lu, Mark Ward, Hector C Basoalto, J.W. Brooks

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    12 Citations (Scopus)
    50 Downloads (Pure)


    Inertia friction welding has been used across the aerospace, automotive, and power-generation industries for the fabrication of complex axisymmetric components for over forty years. The process involves one axisymmetric piece being held stationary and another piece being brought into contact set to rotate about its axis of symmetry by a flywheel with the system under an applied load across the joint. Plasticization at the joint interface through the frictional heating sees the two pieces bond together. The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has been widely studied for inertia welding applications. A successful selection of processing parameters (flywheel energy and mass, applied load) allows an inertia welding process which produces a very high-integrity weld, with a minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ) and thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ), formed as a narrow band at the interface and extending further into the material. The width of this narrow band of heated material is dependent upon the process parameters used. A series of experimental inertia friction welds were performed using Ti-6Al-4V, and a finite element (FE) modeling framework was developed using the FE code Deform in order to predict the widths of the HAZ and TMAZ at the weld interface. The experimentally observed HAZ boundaries were correlated with the thermal fields from the FE model, while TMAZ boundaries were correlated with the Von Mises plastic strain fields.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1000–1011
    Number of pages12
    JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B
    Issue number2
    Early online date31 Dec 2018
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019

    Bibliographical note

    This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Metals and Alloys
    • Materials Chemistry


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