Modeling industry 4.0 based fog computing environments for application analysis and deployment

Nandor Verba, Kuo-Ming Chao, Jacek Lewandowski, Nazaraf Shah, Anne James, Feng Tian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)
110 Downloads (Pure)


The extension of the Cloud to the Edge of the network through Fog Computing can have a significant impact on the reliability and latencies of deployed applications. Recent papers have suggested a shift from VM and Container based deployments to a shared environment among applications to better utilize resources. Unfortunately, the existing deployment and optimization methods pay little attention to developing and identifying complete models to such systems which may cause large inaccuracies between simulated and physical run-time parameters. Existing models do not account for application interdependence or the locality of application resources which causes extra communication and processing delays. This paper addresses these issues by carrying out experiments in both cloud and edge systems with various scales and applications. It analyses the outcomes to derive a new reference model with data driven parameter formulations and representations to help understand the effect of migration on these systems. As a result, we can have a more complete characterization of the fog environment. This, together with tailored optimization methods than can handle the heterogeneity and scale of the fog can improve the overall system run-time parameters and improve constraint satisfaction. An Industry 4.0 based case study with different scenarios was used to analyze and validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Tests were deployed on physical and virtual environments with different scales. The advantages of the model based optimization methods were validated in real physical environments. Based on these tests, we have found that our model is 90% accurate on load and delay predictions for application deployments in both cloud and edge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-60
Number of pages13
JournalFuture Generation Computer Systems
Early online date1 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Future Generation Computer Systems. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 91, 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2018.08.043

© 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Application model
  • Cloud computing
  • Fog computing
  • Migration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling industry 4.0 based fog computing environments for application analysis and deployment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this