Misinformation, disinformation, and fake news: Cyber risks to business

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Misleading information is an emerging cyber risk. It includes misinformation, disinformation, and fake news. Digital transformation and COVID-19 have exacerbated it. While there has been much discussion about the effects of misinformation, disinformation, and fake news on the political process, the consequences of misleading information on businesses have been far less, and it can be argued insufficiently, examined. The article offers a primer on misleading information and cyber risks aimed at business executives and leaders across an array of industries, organizations, and nations. Misleading information can have a profound effect on business. I analyze different misleading information types and identify associated cyber risks to help businesses think about these emerging threats. I examine in general the cyber risk posed by misleading information on business, and I explore in more detail the impact on healthcare, media, financial markets, and elections and geopolitical risks. Finally, I offer a set of practical recommendations for organizations to respond to these new challenges and to manage risks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)763-774
Number of pages12
JournalBusiness Horizons
Issue number6
Early online date2 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Disinformation
  • Misinformation
  • Fake news
  • Cyber risks
  • Cybersecurity


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