MIR and Vis/NIR spectroscopy cannot authenticate organic bulk milk

Carmen L. Manuelian, Vania Vigolo, Federico Righi, Marica Simoni, Sara Burbi, Massimo De Marchi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    58 Downloads (Pure)


    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR; 5000–900 cm−1) and visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR; 400–2500 nm) spectroscopy to discriminate organic (ORG) from conventional (CONV) bulk milk. Samples (n = 225) from 24 farms (ORG, n = 12; CONV, n = 12) located in the same area, mainly rearing Holstein-Friesian cows, under similar management conditions, except for ORG livestock spending a period of time on pasture, were collected from September 2019 to August 2020. Chemical composition of the lactation ration was similar between groups. Mid-infrared and Vis/NIR spectrum of each sample were collected. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were done using R software. For the PLS-DA, records were divided in a train set (8 farms/group) and a test set (4 farms/group), and only wavelengths with VIP >1 were retained. The PCA was not able to discriminate both groups. The PLS-DA revealed an accuracy of the model in the test set of 54.1% and 62.9%, for MIR and Vis/NIR, respectively. In conclusion, both infrared regions performed similarly, and the moderate accuracy of the PLS-DA could be related to the similarity of the selected farms between both categories.Highlights Infrared spectra from bulk milk samples of organic and conventional farms were similar. Low accuracy using partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Both MIR and Vis/NIR infrared regions performed similarly.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1810-1816
    Number of pages7
    JournalItalian Journal of Animal Science
    Issue number1
    Early online date20 Oct 2021
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

    Bibliographical note

    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


    Funding Information:
    This research was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Grant Agreement No. 774340 for the Organic-PLUS project. The Vis/NIR spectrometer DS2500 was funded by Progetto di Eccellenza "Centro per l'Agricoltura, la Sostenibilita e gli Alimenti" (CASA), CUP C26C18000190001, MIUR, Italy). The authors thank Granarolo S.p.A. (Bologna, Italy) for providing the samples.


    • Infrared
    • organic milk
    • PCA
    • PLS-DA

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Animal Science and Zoology


    Dive into the research topics of 'MIR and Vis/NIR spectroscopy cannot authenticate organic bulk milk'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this