Coeliac disease (CD) patients are distinguishable from healthy individuals via urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. We exposed 20 stable CD patients on gluten-free diet (GFDs) to a 14-day, 3 g/day gluten challenge (GCh), and assessed urinary VOC changes. A control cohort of 20 patients continued on GFD. Urine samples from Days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 were analysed using Lonestar FAIMS and Markes Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (GC-TOF-MS). VOC signatures on D (day) 7-56 were compared with D0. Statistical analysis was performed using R. In GCh patients, FAIMS revealed significant VOC differences for all time points compared to D0. GC-TOF-MS revealed significant changes at D7 and D14 only. In control samples, FAIMS revealed significant differences at D7 only. GC-TOF-MS detected no significant differences. Chemical analysis via GC-MS-TOF revealed 12 chemicals with significantly altered intensities at D7 vs. D0 for GCh patients. The alterations persisted for six chemicals at D14 and one (N-methyltaurine) remained altered after D14. This low-dose, short-duration challenge was well tolerated. FAIMS and GC-TOF-MS detected VOC signature changes in CD patients when undergoing a minimal GCh. These findings suggest urinary VOCs could have a role in monitoring dietary compliance in CD patients.
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 8 Feb 2022|
Bibliographical noteCopyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
- gluten free diet
- Celiac Disease - diagnosis
- coeliac disease
- Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
- Mass Spectrometry
- gluten challenge