Microstructural Evolution and Phase Transformation on Sn–Ag Solder Alloys under High‐Temperature Conditions Focusing on Ag3Sn Phase

Jayesh Shanthi Bhavan, Ashwath Pazhani, Mohamed Amer, Nikunj Patel, Unnikrishnan TG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Downloads (Pure)


This study investigates the microstructural and phase transformations in Sn–Ag solder alloys under high‐temperature conditions, utilizing X‐ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses. Analytical techniques are employed pre‐ and postcontrolled thermal cycling from 30 to 180 °C, aimed at emulating solder reflow processes. The analysis at room temperature demonstrates pronounced crystalline peaks, suggesting a preferred orientation within the crystal structure. Upon heating, peak broadening suggests grain growth and the onset of recrystallization. SEM and energy‐dispersive spectroscopy analyses corroborate these findings, displaying a fine‐grained, well‐distributed microstructure with a homogenous composition of Sn and Ag elements. EBSD provides insights into the orientation and texture of grains, revealing a weak‐to‐moderate texture across the phases. Postexperiment data indicate a dominant presence of larger grains and significant variation in grain size, with an area‐weighted mean grain size of 68.47 μm and a standard deviation of 8.68 μm; this suggests significant grain growth and coarsening of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds. These structural evolutions have crucial implications for the mechanical properties and reliability of the solder alloy in electronic assemblies, underscoring the need for further exploration of lead‐free solder materials in the electronics industry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2400660
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
Number of pages13
JournalAdvanced Engineering Materials
Early online date15 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 May 2024

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


  • Ag3Sn intermetallics
  • high-temperature X-ray diffraction analyses
  • microstructural evolutions
  • Sn–Ag solder alloys


Dive into the research topics of 'Microstructural Evolution and Phase Transformation on Sn–Ag Solder Alloys under High‐Temperature Conditions Focusing on Ag3Sn Phase'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this