Meta-Analysis as Early Evidence on the Particulate Emissions Impact of EURO VI on Battery Electric Bus Fleet Transitions

Jon Tivey, Huw Davies, James Levine , Josias Zietsman, Suzanne Bartington, Sergio Ibarra-Espinosa, Karl Ropkins

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The current generation of Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) policies are designed to accelerate the transition away from conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) petrol and diesel vehicle fleets. However, the current focus on zero exhaust emissions and the lack of more detailed guidance regarding Non-Exhaust Emissions (NEEs) may mean that some of the trade-offs in transitioning to,
e.g., Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) fleets may be missed by many in the commercial sector. Here, as part of early work on the scoping of the First Bus EURO VI Diesel Vehicle (E6DV) to BEV fleet upgrades, we estimate E6DV total particulate emissions to be ca. 62–85 and 164–213 mg.veh−−1 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, and that the majority, typically 93–97%, are NEEs. We also discuss the complex interaction between E6DV/BEV properties and estimate potential changes resulting from the transition to BEVs as ranging from a decrease of ca. 2–12% to an increase of ca. 12–50%
depending on a combination of weight difference, regenerative brake performance and journey type. Finally, we propose metrics that would allow fleet operators more insight into a wider range of emission outcomes at the scoping stage of a fleet upgrade.
Original languageEnglish
Article number15223
Pages (from-to)1522
Number of pages30
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/)


This article is funded by UK Research and Innovation under grant agreement NE/V002449/1


  • heavy-duty vehicles
  • Electric vehicles (EVs)
  • bus emissions
  • non-exhaust emissions
  • air quality
  • Particulates


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