Mental health symptoms of Amateur Association football referees: a cross-sectional study

Yavuz Lima, Sergen Devran, Tom Webb, Bülent Bayraktar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)


Although referees who officiate in the amateur football leagues are exposed to various stressors that can negatively affect their mental health (MH), little is known about their MH symptoms. The purpose of the study was to evaluate MH symptoms of referees who officiate in the Turkish amateur football leagues. An online survey was sent to all referees in the Turkish amateur football leagues (n=4900) incorporating standardized scales assessing depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 1279 referees participated in the study. Female referees reported higher depression (p38 years) referees. Results showed that symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress scores were associated with marital status (being single), lower-incomes, severe sports injury history, and inadequate social support. In light of these results, MH assessments should be undertaken to detect which referees are at greater risk of MH problems, and facilitate appropriate and timely MH interventions. Further study is needed to inform MH risk reduction strategies and/or programming.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-214
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Issue number2
Early online date23 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Human Kinetics Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 2022, volume In-press: pp- In-Press pp 16, . © Human Kinetics, Inc.


  • sports officials
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • stress
  • soccer


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