Mega-sport events, micro and small business leveraging: Introducing the ‘MSE-MSB Leverage Model’

Seth Kirby, Mike Duignan, David McGillivray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
301 Downloads (Pure)


Micro and small business (MSB) interests legitimise mega-sport event (MSE) candidature bids. Yet, MSB interests can be side-lined in the event lead up, live staging, and legacy periods. This article provides a detailed: i) review of MSE impacts on existing MSBs residing within targeted host communities, ii) conceptual and practical examination of MSE leveraging opportunities, iii) synthesis of good inclusionary practices identified in previous MSE case studies. As a result, a series of general and specific ways MSEs can foster MSB leveraging and legitimise local interests are suggested. We present a comprehensive analysis of key works since mid-1990s related to the themes identified above. Our analysis identifies that limited conceptual and empirical research exists examining MSB impact and leveraging activities in the context of MSEs, yet significant evidence points to negative experiences, disruption and displacement effects on residential (host) communities. We purposively focus on good practice in the context of other MSEs from the Olympics Games (e.g. London 2012, Rio 2016) and FIFA World Cup (e.g. South Africa, 2010) to inform recommendations and managerial implications. We outline a systematic series of ways MSBs can be structurally excluded from accessing MSE leveraging opportunities. Building on Chalip’s (2004) widely adopted Event Leverage Model (ELM), we present the “MSE-MSB Leverage Model” to illustrate how MSEs can (re)position MSBs as legitimate stakeholders: to support greater leveraging opportunities, and better (re)distribute event benefits back into host communities across planning and delivery stages. These range from reconfiguring: i) event planning principles and policies, ii) regulatory and trading environments, iii) and the development of MSB business-to-business networks and partnerships.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-931
Number of pages15
JournalEvent Management
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2018

Bibliographical note

Published as: Kirby, Seth I., Michael B. Duignan, and David McGillivray. "Mega-Sport Events, Micro and Small Business Leveraging: Introducing the." Event Management 22.6 (2018): 917-931. (c) Cognizant Communication


  • Host community
  • Mega-sporting events
  • Micro and small producers
  • Leveraging
  • Event management
  • Event planning and policy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Mega-sport events, micro and small business leveraging: Introducing the ‘MSE-MSB Leverage Model’'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this