Measurement of team performance in air combat – have we been underperforming?

Heikki Petteri Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Donald Harris, M Jalava

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    In air combat, a traditional way of evaluating team’s taskwork performance is to measure its performance output. However, it provides a narrow view about the team’s performance and potentially misses the complexity of air combat and the team’s taskwork when tactical operating procedures, teams’ competencies and applicability of aircraft systems are evaluated in live-, virtual- and live-virtual-constructivesimulations. This paper introduces a model of an air combat system,
    which explains the dynamically interacting elements relevant to the measurement of team performance in air combat. Shared situation awareness, mental workload, task performance and normative performance are proposed as supplementary measures for the performance output. Recommendations for the selection of measurement techniques are provided. The multidimensional measurement approach presented in this paper can prevent potential misunderstanding of team performance. The principles of the system model and the associated measuring
    techniques can be applied to the analysis of any military system where the objective is to achieve a holistic measure of team performance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)338-359
    Number of pages22
    JournalTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
    Issue number3
    Early online date30 Jun 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 2021


    • Team performance
    • mental workload
    • normative performance
    • shared situation awareness
    • task performance

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Human Factors and Ergonomics


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