Mean Girls: Provocative Clothing Leads to Intra-Sexual Competition between Females

Eleanor Keys, Manpal Singh Bhogal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to investigate indirect aggression between females from an evolutionary perspective, considering indirect aggression as a mechanism of intra-sexual competition. Previous research suggests that females who are dressed provocatively, or appear ‘sexually available’, are more likely to be victims of indirect aggression from other females. Investigating this notion via an empirical measure and a word-selection task, this study involved a female confederate posing as a participant, who was dressed provocatively in one condition and conservatively in the other. Sixty-five females completed an intra-sexual competition scale and a word selection task in which they were able to select complimentary or derogatory phrases to describe the confederate. Making derogative comments is a common form of indirect aggression; therefore, those who selected derogatory phrases could be considered to be exhibiting indirect aggression. Consistent with our hypotheses, females in the provocative condition obtained significantly higher intra-sexual competition scores, selected more derogatory words, and less complimentary words than those in the conservative condition, indicating that females dressed provocatively are indirectly aggressed against to a greater extent than those that are not. This paper adds further support to the notion that indirect aggression is used by females as a method of intra-sexual competition, particularly towards provocatively dressed females.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543–551
JournalCurrent Psychology
Issue number3
Early online date10 Dec 2016
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2018

Bibliographical note

The full text is currently unavailable on the repository.


  • Intra-female competition
  • Sexual selection
  • Provocative clothing
  • Word selection


Dive into the research topics of 'Mean Girls: Provocative Clothing Leads to Intra-Sexual Competition between Females'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this