Marketing decisions and implementation process for entrepreneurial and managerial practices: a critical incident technique approach

Elisabete Sá, , Minoo Farhangmehr, José Carlos Pinho, Sally Dibb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
170 Downloads (Pure)


This paper aims to deepen the understanding of the marketing process and practices taking place during the initial stages of the company development, by revealing the distinct entrepreneurial marketing process and mix resulting from the entrepreneurs’ decision-making process.

Using the critical incident technique, the study analyzes 146 marketing decisions made by entrepreneurs. The resulting marketing activities are aligned in a process and compared with the mainstream managerial marketing process.

The results provide the basis for an entrepreneurial marketing framework with four phases: product creation – product–market fit – market expansion – refocus. An entrepreneurial marketing mix is also proposed, consisting of productisement, people and proof of value.

While the managerial marketing process is well established, the entrepreneurial marketing process remains largely uncharted. The framework provided contributes to identifying the main marketing concerns and understanding how the marketing process is implemented by entrepreneurs in the earlier phases of the firm. Practical suggestions are offered regarding the marketing operations of the new firms and the critical marketing aspects to consider.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-241
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship
Issue number2
Early online date15 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 19 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.


  • Entrepreneurial marketing
  • Entrepreneurs
  • Marketing management
  • SMEs marketing
  • Start-ups
  • Technology-based firms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Strategy and Management
  • Marketing


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