Low-visibility commercial ground operations: An objective and subjective evaluation of a multimodal display.

James Blundell, Charlotte Collins, Rodney Sears, Anastasios Plioutsias, John Huddlestone, Don Harris, James Harrison, Anthony Kershaw, Paul Harrison, Phil Lamb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Flight crews’ capacity to conduct take-off and landing in near zero visibility conditions has been partially addressed by advanced surveillance and cockpit display technology. This capability is yet to be realised within the context of manoeuvring aircraft within airport terminal areas. In this paper the performance and workload benefits of user-centre designed visual and haptic taxi navigational cues, presented via a head-up display (HUD) and active sidestick, respectively, were evaluated in simulated taxiing trials by 12 professional pilots. In addition, the trials sought to examine pilot acceptance of side stick nose wheel steering. The HUD navigational cues demonstrated a significant task-specific benefit by reducing centreline deviation during turns and the frequency of major taxiway deviations. In parallel, the visual cues reduced self-report workload. Pilot’s appraisal of nose wheel steering by sidestick was positive, and active sidestick cues increased confidence in the multimodal guidance construct. The study presents the first examination of how a multimodal display, combining visual and haptic cues, could support the safety and efficiency in which pilots are able to conduct a taxi navigation task in low-visibility conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
Number of pages23
JournalThe Aeronautical Journal
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2023


Innovate UK


  • Head-up displays
  • Haptics
  • Multimodal
  • Ground Operations
  • Performance
  • Workload


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