Birnessite nanotubes and activated carbon electrodes have been used in supercapacitor cells to assess the performance of new aqueous based electrolyte systems at temperatures as low as -30 °C. The addition of ethylene glycol to aqueous sodium, lithium, potassium and ammonium sulfates has resulted in electrolytes that are still in liquid phase at such low temperatures. Extensive electrochemical testing showed that in such systems, operation of these aqueous based supercapacitors is possible at -30 °C with a specific capacitance of over 30 F g(-1) and good cycleability.
Roberts, A. J., De Namor, A. F. D., & Slade, R. C. T. (2013). Low temperature water based electrolytes for MnO2/carbon supercapacitors. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15(10), 3518-3526. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3cp50359c