Low doses of caffeine: Enhancement of physical performance in elite adolescent male soccer players

Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers, Neil Clarke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Context:
Large doses of ~6 mg·kg-1 body mass have improved performance during intermittent running, jumping, and agility protocols. However, there are sparse data on low doses of caffeine, especially in elite adolescent soccer players.
Method:

Fifteen elite youth soccer players (177.3±4.8 cm, 66.9±7.9 kg and 16±1 y) participated in the study, consuming 1, 2, or 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine in a gelatin capsule or a 2-mg·kg-1 placebo in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study design. Testing consisted of a 20-m sprint, arrowhead agility (change of direction [CoD] right or left), countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Post-exercise CMJ performance was assessed as participants exited the Yo-Yo IR1. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian multilevel regression model to provide explained variance and probabilities of improvement (p=%).
Results:

3 mg·kg-1 caffeine presented the highest probabilities of change compared with placebo across a range of tests (mean ± SD, p= %). Times for 20-m sprint were 3.15±0.10s vs 3.18±0.09s (p=73%), CoD-R times were 8.43±0.24s vs 8.55±0.25s (p=99%), CoD-L times were 8.44±0.22s vs 8.52±0.18s (p=85%), Yo-Yo IR1 distance was 2440±531m vs 2308±540m (p=15%), and preexercise CMJ height was 41.6±7.2cm vs 38±8.5cm (p=96%). Postexercise CMJ was higher with 3 mg·kg-1 than with placebo (42.3±8cm vs 36.6±8cm [p=100%]). Doses of 1 or 2 mg·kg-1 caffeine also demonstrated the ability to enhance performance but were task dependent.
Conclusion:

Low doses of caffeine improve performance but are dose and task dependent. A dose of 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine improved performance across the majority of tests with potential to further improve postexercise CMJ height.
LanguageEnglish
Pages(In-press)
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Volume(In-press)
Early online date3 Dec 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

Soccer
Caffeine
Placebos
Task Performance and Analysis
Cross-Over Studies
Sagittaria
Aptitude
Gelatin
Running
Capsules
Exercise
Direction compound

Bibliographical note

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. The deposit is as accepted for publication. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.

Keywords

  • Ergogenic Aid
  • Jump
  • Agility
  • Youth
  • Bayesian

Cite this

Low doses of caffeine : Enhancement of physical performance in elite adolescent male soccer players. / Ellis, Matthew ; Noon, Mark; Myers, Tony; Clarke, Neil.

In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, Vol. (In-press), 03.12.2018, p. (In-press).

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Context:Large doses of ~6 mg·kg-1 body mass have improved performance during intermittent running, jumping, and agility protocols. However, there are sparse data on low doses of caffeine, especially in elite adolescent soccer players.Method:Fifteen elite youth soccer players (177.3±4.8 cm, 66.9±7.9 kg and 16±1 y) participated in the study, consuming 1, 2, or 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine in a gelatin capsule or a 2-mg·kg-1 placebo in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study design. Testing consisted of a 20-m sprint, arrowhead agility (change of direction [CoD] right or left), countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Post-exercise CMJ performance was assessed as participants exited the Yo-Yo IR1. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian multilevel regression model to provide explained variance and probabilities of improvement (p={\%}).Results:3 mg·kg-1 caffeine presented the highest probabilities of change compared with placebo across a range of tests (mean ± SD, p= {\%}). Times for 20-m sprint were 3.15±0.10s vs 3.18±0.09s (p=73{\%}), CoD-R times were 8.43±0.24s vs 8.55±0.25s (p=99{\%}), CoD-L times were 8.44±0.22s vs 8.52±0.18s (p=85{\%}), Yo-Yo IR1 distance was 2440±531m vs 2308±540m (p=15{\%}), and preexercise CMJ height was 41.6±7.2cm vs 38±8.5cm (p=96{\%}). Postexercise CMJ was higher with 3 mg·kg-1 than with placebo (42.3±8cm vs 36.6±8cm [p=100{\%}]). Doses of 1 or 2 mg·kg-1 caffeine also demonstrated the ability to enhance performance but were task dependent.Conclusion:Low doses of caffeine improve performance but are dose and task dependent. A dose of 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine improved performance across the majority of tests with potential to further improve postexercise CMJ height.",
keywords = "Ergogenic Aid, Jump, Agility, Youth, Bayesian",
author = "Matthew Ellis and Mark Noon and Tony Myers and Neil Clarke",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders. This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. The deposit is as accepted for publication. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.",
year = "2018",
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language = "English",
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AU - Myers, Tony

AU - Clarke, Neil

N1 - Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders. This document is the author’s post-print version, incorporating any revisions agreed during the peer-review process. The deposit is as accepted for publication. Some differences between the published version and this version may remain and you are advised to consult the published version if you wish to cite from it.

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N2 - Context:Large doses of ~6 mg·kg-1 body mass have improved performance during intermittent running, jumping, and agility protocols. However, there are sparse data on low doses of caffeine, especially in elite adolescent soccer players.Method:Fifteen elite youth soccer players (177.3±4.8 cm, 66.9±7.9 kg and 16±1 y) participated in the study, consuming 1, 2, or 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine in a gelatin capsule or a 2-mg·kg-1 placebo in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study design. Testing consisted of a 20-m sprint, arrowhead agility (change of direction [CoD] right or left), countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Post-exercise CMJ performance was assessed as participants exited the Yo-Yo IR1. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian multilevel regression model to provide explained variance and probabilities of improvement (p=%).Results:3 mg·kg-1 caffeine presented the highest probabilities of change compared with placebo across a range of tests (mean ± SD, p= %). Times for 20-m sprint were 3.15±0.10s vs 3.18±0.09s (p=73%), CoD-R times were 8.43±0.24s vs 8.55±0.25s (p=99%), CoD-L times were 8.44±0.22s vs 8.52±0.18s (p=85%), Yo-Yo IR1 distance was 2440±531m vs 2308±540m (p=15%), and preexercise CMJ height was 41.6±7.2cm vs 38±8.5cm (p=96%). Postexercise CMJ was higher with 3 mg·kg-1 than with placebo (42.3±8cm vs 36.6±8cm [p=100%]). Doses of 1 or 2 mg·kg-1 caffeine also demonstrated the ability to enhance performance but were task dependent.Conclusion:Low doses of caffeine improve performance but are dose and task dependent. A dose of 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine improved performance across the majority of tests with potential to further improve postexercise CMJ height.

AB - Context:Large doses of ~6 mg·kg-1 body mass have improved performance during intermittent running, jumping, and agility protocols. However, there are sparse data on low doses of caffeine, especially in elite adolescent soccer players.Method:Fifteen elite youth soccer players (177.3±4.8 cm, 66.9±7.9 kg and 16±1 y) participated in the study, consuming 1, 2, or 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine in a gelatin capsule or a 2-mg·kg-1 placebo in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study design. Testing consisted of a 20-m sprint, arrowhead agility (change of direction [CoD] right or left), countermovement jump (CMJ), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Post-exercise CMJ performance was assessed as participants exited the Yo-Yo IR1. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian multilevel regression model to provide explained variance and probabilities of improvement (p=%).Results:3 mg·kg-1 caffeine presented the highest probabilities of change compared with placebo across a range of tests (mean ± SD, p= %). Times for 20-m sprint were 3.15±0.10s vs 3.18±0.09s (p=73%), CoD-R times were 8.43±0.24s vs 8.55±0.25s (p=99%), CoD-L times were 8.44±0.22s vs 8.52±0.18s (p=85%), Yo-Yo IR1 distance was 2440±531m vs 2308±540m (p=15%), and preexercise CMJ height was 41.6±7.2cm vs 38±8.5cm (p=96%). Postexercise CMJ was higher with 3 mg·kg-1 than with placebo (42.3±8cm vs 36.6±8cm [p=100%]). Doses of 1 or 2 mg·kg-1 caffeine also demonstrated the ability to enhance performance but were task dependent.Conclusion:Low doses of caffeine improve performance but are dose and task dependent. A dose of 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine improved performance across the majority of tests with potential to further improve postexercise CMJ height.

KW - Ergogenic Aid

KW - Jump

KW - Agility

KW - Youth

KW - Bayesian

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DO - 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0536

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VL - (In-press)

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SN - 1555-0265

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