London’s Off-Site Manufactured Housing Model as a Practical Solution to Change the Future of High Density Cities: A Feasibility Study to Implement it in Baghdad, Al-Sadr City

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ABSTRACT: The housing crisis around the world that caused by the uncontrolled population growth and immigration particularly in large cities urged the demand of more innovative approaches as the traditional construction methods unable to meet the rising demands. Baghdad is Iraq capital which is an example suffering
from housing deficit with 451,080 units in 2009 and the number is claimed to be double in 2021. The study aimed to find a sufficient solution for Baghdad housing crises and to take Al-Sadr City: as a case study in Baghdad to implement feasible housing solutions by adopting a modern method of Construction. Al-Sadr City, the most populated district in Baghdad with 2 million people suffers from severe housing crises due to the high occupancy rate per unit, slums and urban issues; high density reached 1527 person per hectare; bout 13 person per unit as residential occupancy rate a double more than the normal rate as only 6 person per unit. The traditional method is unable to solve such City housing crises; hence, The London Model that adopted (OSM)
offsite manufacturing housing took as a model due to the similarities to Baghdad housing crises and situation as well as its advantages in term of Cost-efficiency, Speed of construction, health and safety and the environmental
performance. The study aims to propose solutions for Al-Sadr City housing issues based on London Model in term of planning, designing and application and examine the feasibility of London model to be implemented as
housing solutions for Al-Sadr City. A comprehensive methodological approached of mixed-methodological (quantitative and qualitative) approach comprise a multiple method such as: interviews, case study and questionnaire were conducted including two consecutive stages to propose a practical plan to implement the offsite manufactured homes in Al-Sadr City including planning (site location, urban planning, housing preferences) and construction; implementation50 participants (Al-Sadr City residents) took part in the questionnaire while 7 interviews were held with architecture and construction professionals. The key findings of the stage one, the study propose for the site locations of the new housing projects that linked the housing shortage and slums to be outside the City based on the data collected, additionally, the slums’ location should demolished and transferring to the green areas. Key findings of the second stage, London model is highly feasible in term of the of
implementation due to their advantages as compared to traditional method, However, barriers such as lack of skilled workers, public awareness, high temperature should be overcomed by training, government support,
enhance public awareness and focus on thermal insulation, hence practical plan could be implemented.
KEYWORDS: Housing Model, Future, High-Density Cities, planning, designing, London, Baghdad.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-36
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Engineering, Management and Humanities
Issue number1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 5 Feb 2022


  • Housing Model
  • Future
  • High-Density Cities
  • Planning
  • Designing
  • London
  • Baghdad


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