Live–virtual–constructive simulation for testing and evaluation of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures, Part 2: demonstration of the framework

Heikki Petteri Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Donald Harris, Jaakko Salomaki

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)
    135 Downloads (Pure)


    In this paper, the use of the live (L), virtual (V), and constructive (C) simulation framework introduced in Part 1 of this two-part study is demonstrated in the testing and evaluation of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). Each TTP consists of rules that describe how aircraft pilots coordinate their actions to achieve goals in air combat. In the demonstration, the initial rules are defined by subject matter experts (SMEs). These rules are refined iteratively in separate C-, V-, and L-simulation stages. In the C-stage, an operationally used C-simulation model is used to provide optimal rules with respect to the probabilities of survival (Ps) and kill (Pk) of aircraft without considering human–machine interaction (HMI). In the V-stage, fighter squadrons’ V-simulators and SMEs’ assessment are used to modify these rules by evaluating their applicability with Pk and Ps, as well as HMI measures regarding pilots’ situation awareness, mental workload, and TTP rule adherence. In the L-stage, qualified fighter pilots fly F/A-18C aircraft in a real-life environment. Based on SMEs’ assessment, the TTP rules refined in the C- and L-stages result in acceptable Pk, Ps, and HMI measures in the L-stage. As such, the demonstration highlights the utility of the LVC framework.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)295-308
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology
    Issue number4
    Early online date12 Nov 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

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    • Air combat
    • human factors
    • human–machine interaction
    • live–virtual–constructive
    • mental workload
    • performance
    • simulation
    • situation awareness
    • testing and evaluation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Modelling and Simulation
    • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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