Live–virtual–constructive simulation for testing and evaluation of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures, Part 1: assessment framework

Heikki Petteri Mansikka, Kai Virtanen, Donald Harris, Jaakko Salomaki

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)
    253 Downloads (Pure)


    This paper advances live (L), virtual (V), and constructive (C) simulation methodologies by introducing a new LVC simulation framework for the development of air combat tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). In the framework, TTP is developed iteratively in separate C-, V-, and L-simulation stages. This allows the utilization of the strengths of each simulation class while avoiding the challenges of pure LVC simulations. The C-stage provides the optimal TTP with respect to the probabilities of survival (Ps) and kill (Pk) of aircraft without considering the human–machine interaction (HMI). In the V-stage, the optimal TTP is modified by assessing its applicability with Pk and Ps, as well as HMI measures regarding pilots’ situation awareness, mental workload, and TTP adherence. In the L-stage, real aircraft are used to evaluate whether the developed TTP leads to acceptable Pk, Ps, and HMI measures in a real-life environment. The iterative nature of the framework enables that V- or L-stages can reveal flaws of the TTP and an inadequate TTP can be returned to the C- or V-stage for revision. This paper is Part 1 of a two-part study. Part 2 demonstrates the use of the framework with operationally used C- and V-simulators as well as real F/A-18C aircraft and pilots.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)285-293
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology
    Issue number4
    Early online date12 Nov 2019
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

    Bibliographical note

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    • Air combat
    • human factors
    • human–machine interaction
    • live–virtual–constructive
    • mental workload
    • performance
    • simulation
    • situation awareness
    • testing and evaluation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Modelling and Simulation
    • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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