Lithium ion batteries (NMC/graphite) cycling at 80 °C: Different electrolytes and related degradation mechanism

R. Genieser, S. Ferrari, M. Loveridge, S. D. Beattie, R. Beanland, H. Amari, G. West, R. Bhagat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


A comprehensive study on high temperature cycling (80 °C) of industrial manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) filled with different electrolytes is introduced. Ageing processes such as capacity fade, resistance increase and gas generation are reduced by the choice of appropriate electrolyte formulations. However, even by using additive formulations designed for elevated temperatures a large resistance increase is observed after 200 cycles and more (which does not happen at 55 °C). Symmetrical EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) shows that the cathodic charge transfer resistance is the main reason for this behaviour. Nonetheless most of the active Li is still available when cycling with suitable additives. No change of the cathode crystalline structure or a growth of the cathodic surface reconstruction layer is observed post cycling at 80 °C. Therefore a disintegration of NMC secondary particles is believed to be the main reason of the cell failure. A separation of single grains is leading to new decomposition and reconstruction layers between primary particles and an increased charge transfer resistance. Further approaches to improve the high temperature cycle stability of NMC based materials should therefore be aimed at the cathode particles morphology in combination with similar electrolyte formulations as used in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)172-183
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Early online date10 Nov 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Cell swelling
  • Electrode degradation
  • Electrolyte additives
  • Elevated temperature
  • Li-ion battery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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