Life cycle assessment of carbon fiber and bio-fiber composites prepared via vacuum bagging technique

Karthik Ramachandran, Constance L. Gnanasagaran, Ashish Vekariya

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Over the past few decades, increasing demand for light weight material have grown in various applications including aerospace, and other structural applications with added focus on green engineering and sustainability. Particularly in aerospace industries, utilisation of carbon fiber composites results in increased rate of pollution due to its inability to be repaired and recycled. Therefore, it is envisaged that migrating to biocomposites could be the solution forward depending on the manufacturing techniques. This life cycle assessment concentrates on understanding the emission rate of vacuum bagged carbon fiber and biocomposites with focus on its recycling abilities. In this study, carbon composites indicated a global warming potential (GWP) of 54 kgCO2Eq. whereas biocomposites showcased 12 kgCO2Eq. This implies that GWP of biocomposites were approximately four times less than carbon composites and if pesticides and fiber spinning are controlled, emission could be further reduced along with the overall energy consumption along with other emissions. Although biocomposites showcased lower environmental impact in mostly every scenario, the transition towards biocomposites still requires research to fulfil gaps with regards to the enhancement of mechanical properties compared to carbon fiber composites.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-131
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
Early online date2 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (


  • Life cycle assessment
  • Carbon fiber composites
  • Biocomposites
  • Vacuum bagging technique
  • Global warming potential


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