Level Crossing Rate and Average Fade Duration in F Composite Fading Channels

Seong Ki Yoo, Simon Cotton, Paschalis Sofotasios, Sami Muhaidat, George Karagiannidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
92 Downloads (Pure)


In this letter, we derive exact closed-form expressions for the level crossing rate (LCR) and average fade duration (AFD) of the signal envelope in F composite fading channels. Using the novel expressions, we then investigate the behavior of the LCR and AFD for different multipath fading and shadowing conditions. It is shown that multipath fading has a more significant effect on the LCR at lower fade levels while shadowing tends to have a discernible impact on higher threshold levels. In contrast, shadowing has a more noticeable effect on the AFD compared to multipath fading at both lower and higher levels. Approximate expressions for the LCR and AFD are also provided, and shown to be in good agreement with the exact LCR and AFD as they approach lower and higher threshold levels. The offered results are expected to be useful in the design of emerging systems such as device-to-device communications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8894478
Pages (from-to)281-284
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications Letters
Issue number3
Early online date8 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes

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This work was supported in part by the U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under Grant EP/L026074/1, in part by the Department for the Economy Northern Ireland under Grant USI080, and in part by the Khalifa University under Grant KU/RC1-C2PS-T2/8474000137 and Grant KU/FSU-8474000122.


  • Average fade duration
  • Fisher-Snedecor F distribution and level crossing rate
  • composite fading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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