Latest advances in the manufacturing of 3D rechargeable lithium microbatteries

Stefania Ferrari, Melanie Loveridge, Shane D. Beattie, Marcus Jahn, R.J. Dashwood, Rohit Bhagat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

172 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) technology have led to a niche industry of diverse small-scale devices that include microsensors, micromachines and drug-delivery systems. For these devices, there is an urgent need to develop Micro Lithium Ion Batteries (MLIBs) with dimensions on the scale 1–10 mm3 enabling on-board power delivery.

Unfortunately, power limitations are inherent in planar 2D cells and only the advent of 3D designs and microarchitectures will lead to a real breakthrough in the microbattery technology. During the last few years, many efforts to optimise MLIBs were discussed in literature, both in the planar and 3D configurations.

This review highlights the importance of 3D microarchitectured electrodes to fabricate batteries that can be device-integrated with exceptionally high specific power density coupled with exquisite miniaturisation. A wide literature overview is provided and recent advances in manufacturing routes to 3D-MLIBs comprising materials synthesis, device formulation, device testing are herein discussed. The advent of simple, economic and easily scalable fabrication processes such as 3D printing will have a decisive role in the growing field of micropower sources and microdevices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-46
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Early online date28 Mar 2015
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2015


  • Li-ion microbatteries
  • Thin film
  • 3D printing
  • Silicon


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