Laser directed energy deposition of water-atomized iron powder: Process optimization and microstructure of single-tracks

Mohammad Ansari, Alireza Mohamadizadeh, Yuze Huang, Vladimir Paserin, Ehsan Toyserkani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Although iron, as a basic metal, has been used commonly in industry, the use of an advanced technique such as additive manufacturing (AM) may offer more opportunities. For example, AM of iron-based powders for functional prototypes would likely be beneficial in the automotive industry, since this industry has commonly used iron alloys for prototypes and functional parts produced by conventional technologies. This paper presents Laser Directed Energy Deposition through Powder Feeding (LDED-PF), a class of AM, of irregular-shape inexpensive water-atomized iron powder. A setup with a lateral powder-fed nozzle was deployed to deposit single-tracks using different processing parameters. The experimental design and optimization model were implemented based on the response surface methodology when the regression model was tested by the variance analysis. The desirability function was used to identify the optimal processing window to obtain the single-tracks with a minimized dilution and a maximized bead height and high powder efficiency. The results showed that the geometrical characteristics of the single-tracks have a high dependency on the key LDED-PF processing parameters. In addition, the microstructure and phase composition of the single-tracks were investigated by SEM and EDS, revealing that the deposits were generally composed of the ferrite phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-493
Number of pages9
JournalOptics and Laser Technology
Early online date5 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada , the China Scholarship Council , and the Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario (FedDev Ontario) . The authors gratefully thank Dr. Farzad Liravi and Miss Nayyer Mirnasl-Bonab for their help in the statistical analysis and Mr. Shahriar Imani Shahabad, and Mr. Osezua Ibhadode for their help in the manuscript preparation. The authors also wish to thank Rio Tinto Metal Powders for providing the materials used for the experiment (ATOMET metal powders).


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Iron powder
  • Laser directed energy deposition
  • Microstructure
  • Optimization
  • Statistical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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