Laser Clad and HVOF-Sprayed Stellite 6 Coating in Chlorine-Rich Environment with KCl at 700 °C

Zdenek Pala, Mingwen Bai, Frantisek Lukac, Tanvir Hussain

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Laser clads and HVOF coatings from a stellite 6 alloy (Co–Cr–W–C alloy) on 304 stainless steel substrates were exposed both bare and with KCl deposits in 500 ppm HCl with 5% O2 for 250 h at 700 °C. SEM/EDX and PXRD analyses with Rietveld refinement were used for assessment of the attack and for analysis of the scales. The bare samples suffered from scale spallation and the scale was mostly composed of Cr2O3, CoCr2O4 and CoO, although due to dilution haematite (Fe2O3) was detected in the scale formed on the laser clad sample. A small amount of hydrated HCl was detected in bare samples. While the corrosion of the bare surfaces was limited to comparatively shallow depths and manifested by η and M7C3 carbide formation, the presence of KCl on the surface led to severe Cr depletion from the HVOF coating (to 1 wt%). Both inward and outward diffusion of elements occurred in the HVOF coating resulting in Kirdendall voids at the coating–steel interface. The laser clad sample performed significantly better in conditions of the KCl-deposit-induced corrosion. In addition to the oxides, CoCl2 was detected in the HVOF sample and K3CrO4 was detected in the laser clad sample. Thermodynamic calculations and kinetic simulations were carried out to interpret the oxidation and diffusion behaviours of coatings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)749–771
Number of pages23
JournalOxidation of Metals
Early online date20 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.


  • Stellite 6
  • KCl
  • High-temperature corrosion
  • HVOF
  • Laser cladding

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