Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low-aspect-ratio cylindrical open-top chambers

P. Cunningham, Rodman R. Linn, Eunmo Koo, Cathy J. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed boundary method, and the ambient flow in which the OTCs are embedded is representative of a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. Results from the LES model show that the flow inside OTCs depends strongly on the height of the chamber wall. In particular, as chamber height increases the flow impinging on the upstream wall is deflected more in the vertical direction, a stronger recirculation flow develops inside the chamber, turbulence intensities are greater, and there is stronger vertical transport and mixing within the OTC, even at or near the ground. For low wall heights (i.e., very low aspect ratios), however, the flow impinging on the OTC is only diverted weakly in the vertical direction; aside from a small recirculation zone inside the OTC near the upstream wall and a small region near the downstream wall as the flow separates from the ground, there is minimal vertical mixing and the turbulence intensities are small. The results of these simulations, while general in nature, are particularly relevant to design considerations for manipulative field experiments in highly heterogeneous, low-stature ecosystems such as Arctic shrubs and grasses. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1716-1737
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Volume52
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

open-top chamber
large eddy simulation
airflow
turbulence
vertical mixing
shrub
boundary layer
grass
ecosystem
simulation

Bibliographical note

Cited By :2

Export Date: 16 May 2017

Correspondence Address: Cunningham, P.; Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, EES-16, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, United States; email: pcunning@lanl.gov

References: Andrejczuk, M., Reisner, J.M., Henson, B., Dubey, M.K., Jeffery, C.A., The potential impacts of pollution on a nondrizzling stratus deck: Does aerosol number matter more than type? J.Geophys.Res., 113, p. 19204. , doi:101029/2007JD009445; Baldocchi, D.D., White, R., Johnston, J.W., A wind tunnel study to design large, open-top chambers for wholetree pollutant exposure experiments J.Air Pollut.Control Assoc., 39, pp. 1549-1556; Cunningham, P., Linn, R.R., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Dynamics of fire spread J.Geophys.Res., 112, p. 05108. , doi:101029/2006JD007638; Davis, J.M., Riordan, A.J., Lawson, R.E., A wind tunnel study of the flow field within and around open-top chambers used for air pollution studies Bound.-Layer Meteor., 25, pp. 193-214; Fadlun, E.A., Verzicco, R., Orlandi, P., Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed-boundary finite-difference methods for three-dimensional complex flow simulations J.Comput.Phys., 161, pp. 35-60; Frederich, O., Wassen, E., Thiele, F., Prediction of the flow around a short wall-mounted finite cylinder using LES and DES J.Numer.Anal.Ind.Appl.Math., 3, pp. 231-247; Fröhlich, J., Rodi, W., LES of the flow around a circular cylinder of finite height Int.J.Heat Fluid Flow, 25, pp. 537-548; Hain, R., Kähler, C.J., Michaelis, D., Tomographic and time resolved PIV measurements on a finite cylinder mounted on a flat plate Exp.Fluids, 45, pp. 715-724; Hanson, P.J., Childs, K.W., Wullschleger, S.D., Riggs, J.S., Thomas, W.K., Todd, D.E., Warren, J.M., A method for experimental heating of intact soil profiles for application to climate change experiments Global Change Biol., 17, pp. 1083-1096. , doi:101111/j.1365-2486.2010.02221.x; Heagle, A.S., Body, D.E., Heck, W.W., An open top field chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants J.Environ.Qual., 2, pp. 365-368; Hendrey, G.R., FACE: Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment for Plant Research in the Field , p. 264. , CRC PressHolroyd, R.J., On the behaviour of open-topped oil storage tanks in high winds, Part I.Aerodynamic aspects J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 12, pp. 329-352; Kimball, B.A., Theory and performance of an infrared heater for ecosystem warming Global Change Biol., 11, pp. 2041-2056; Kimball, B.A., Pinter, P.J., Wall, G.W., Garcia, R.L., LaMorte, R.L., Jak, P.M.C., Frumau, K.F.A., Vugts, H.F., Comparisons of responses of vegetation to elevated carbon dioxide in free-air and open-top chamber facilities , pp. 113-130. , Advances in Carbon Dioxide Effects Research, L.H.Allen et al., Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of AmericaKimball, B.A., Kobayashi, K., Bindi, M., Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment Adv.Agron., 77, pp. 293-368; Kimball, B.A., Conley, M.M., Wang, S., Lin, X., Luo, C., Morgan, J., Smith, D., Infrared heater arrays for warming ecosystem field plots Global Change Biol., 14, pp. 309-320; Lim, H.C., Thomas, T.G., Castro, I.P., Flow around a cube in a turbulent boundary layer: LES and experiment J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 97, pp. 96-109; Linn, R.R., A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior , p. 195. , Los Alamos National Laboratory Sci.Rep.LA-13334-TLinn, R.R., Cunningham, P., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Basic fire behavior and dependence on wind speed J.Geophys.Res., 110, p. 13107. , doi:101029/2004JD005597; Linn, R.R., Reisner, J.M., Colman, J.J., Winterkamp, J., Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC Int.J.Wildland Fire, 11, pp. 233-246; Lundquist, K.A., Chow, F.K., Lundquist, J.K., An immersed boundary method for the Weather Research and Forecasting model Mon.Wea.Rev., 138, pp. 796-817; Mayor, S.D., Spalart, P.R., Tripoli, G.J., Application of a perturbation recycling method in the large-eddy simulation of a mesoscale convective internal boundary layer J.Atmos.Sci., 59, pp. 2385-2395; Mittal, R., Iaccarino, G., Immersed boundary methods Annu.Rev.Fluid Mech., 37, pp. 239-261; Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed boundary/b-spline methods for simulations of flow in complex geometry , pp. 317-327. , Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford UniversityNijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Teughels, H., Blum, H., Hendrey, G., Impens, I., Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI): A new tool to study global warming effects on plants in the field Plant Cell Environ., 19, pp. 495-502; Nijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Heuer, M., Beyens, L., Trappeniers, K., Impens, I., Climate-warming simulation in tundra: Enhanced precision and repeatability with an improved infraredheating device Arct.Antarct.Alp.Res., 32, pp. 346-350; Norby, R.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Tree responses to elevated CO2 and the implications for forests , pp. 1-21. , Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems, G.W.Koch and H.A.Mooney, Eds., Academic PressNorby, R.J., Edwards, N.T., Riggs, J.S., Abner, C.H., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Temperature-controlled open-top chambers for global change research Global Change Biol., 3, pp. 259-267; Pasley, H., Clark, C., Computational fluid dynamics study of flow around floating-roof oil storage tanks J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 86, pp. 37-54; Pattenden, R.J., Turnock, S.R., Zhang, X., Measurements of the flow over a low-aspect-ratio cylinder mounted on a ground plane Exp.Fluids, 39, pp. 10-21; Pattenden, R.J., Bressloff, N.., Turnock, S.R., Zhang, X., Unsteady simulations of the flow around a short surface-mounted cylinder Int.J.Numer.Methods Fluids, 53, pp. 895-914; Pimont, F., Dupuy, J.-L., Linn, R.R., Dupont, S., Validation of FIRETEC wind-flows over a canopy and a fuelbreak Int.J.Wildland Fire, 18, pp. 775-790; Pope, S.B., Turbulent Flows , p. 806. , Cambridge University PressReisner, J.M., Jeffery, C.A., A smooth cloud model Mon.Wea.Rev., 137, pp. 1825-1843; Reisner, J.M., Wynne, S., Margolin, L., Linn, R.R., Coupled atmospheric-fire modeling employing the method of averages Mon.Wea.Rev., 128, pp. 3683-3691; Reisner, J.M., Mousseau, V., Wyszogrodzki, A., Knoll, D., A fully implicit hurricane model with physics-based preconditioning Mon.Wea.Rev., 133, pp. 1003-1022; Rogers, H.H., Heck, W.W., Heagle, A.S., A field technique for the study of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations J.Air Pollut.Control Assoc., 33, pp. 42-44; Roh, S.C., Park, S.O., Vortical flow over the free end surface of a finite circular cylinder mounted on a flat plate Exp.Fluids, 34, pp. 63-67; Schmitt, F., Ruck, B., Flow visualisation studies of aerodynamic characteristics of an open-top chamber Environ.Pollut., 48, pp. 223-233; Shaw, R.H., Patton, E.G., Canopy element influences on resolved-and subgrid-scale energy within a large-eddy simulation Agric.For.Meteor., 115, pp. 5-17; Smith, W.S., Reisner, J.M., Kao, C.-Y.J., Simulations of flow around a cubical building: Comparison with towing-tank data and assessment of radiatively induced thermal effects Atmos.Environ., 35, pp. 3811-3821; Thomas, T.G., Williams, J.J.R., Generating a wind environment for large eddy simulation of bluff body flows J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 82, pp. 189-208; Tseng, Y.-H., Ferziger, J.H., A ghost-cell immersed boundary for flow in complex geometry J.Comput.Phys., 192, pp. 593-623; Tseng, Y.-H., Meneveu, C., Parlange, M.B., Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation Environ.Sci.Technol., 40, pp. 2653-2662

Keywords

  • Design considerations
  • Height-to-diameter ratio
  • Immersed boundary methods
  • Large-eddy simulation models
  • Re-circulation flow
  • Turbulence intensity
  • Vertical transports
  • Very low aspect ratios
  • Large eddy simulation
  • Mixing
  • Turbulence
  • Aspect ratio
  • airflow
  • atmospheric structure
  • atmospheric transport
  • large eddy simulation
  • turbulence
  • turbulent boundary layer
  • vertical mixing
  • Arctic
  • Poaceae

Cite this

Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low-aspect-ratio cylindrical open-top chambers. / Cunningham, P.; Linn, Rodman R.; Koo, Eunmo ; Wilson, Cathy J.

In: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2013, p. 1716-1737.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cunningham, P. ; Linn, Rodman R. ; Koo, Eunmo ; Wilson, Cathy J. / Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low-aspect-ratio cylindrical open-top chambers. In: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. 2013 ; Vol. 52, No. 8. pp. 1716-1737.
@article{56eff71ff38b4b02b79e5f44015fb889,
title = "Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low-aspect-ratio cylindrical open-top chambers",
abstract = "The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed boundary method, and the ambient flow in which the OTCs are embedded is representative of a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. Results from the LES model show that the flow inside OTCs depends strongly on the height of the chamber wall. In particular, as chamber height increases the flow impinging on the upstream wall is deflected more in the vertical direction, a stronger recirculation flow develops inside the chamber, turbulence intensities are greater, and there is stronger vertical transport and mixing within the OTC, even at or near the ground. For low wall heights (i.e., very low aspect ratios), however, the flow impinging on the OTC is only diverted weakly in the vertical direction; aside from a small recirculation zone inside the OTC near the upstream wall and a small region near the downstream wall as the flow separates from the ground, there is minimal vertical mixing and the turbulence intensities are small. The results of these simulations, while general in nature, are particularly relevant to design considerations for manipulative field experiments in highly heterogeneous, low-stature ecosystems such as Arctic shrubs and grasses. {\circledC} 2013 American Meteorological Society.",
keywords = "Design considerations, Height-to-diameter ratio, Immersed boundary methods, Large-eddy simulation models, Re-circulation flow, Turbulence intensity, Vertical transports, Very low aspect ratios, Large eddy simulation, Mixing, Turbulence, Aspect ratio, airflow, atmospheric structure, atmospheric transport, large eddy simulation, turbulence, turbulent boundary layer, vertical mixing, Arctic, Poaceae",
author = "P. Cunningham and Linn, {Rodman R.} and Eunmo Koo and Wilson, {Cathy J.}",
note = "Cited By :2 Export Date: 16 May 2017 Correspondence Address: Cunningham, P.; Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, EES-16, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, United States; email: pcunning@lanl.gov References: Andrejczuk, M., Reisner, J.M., Henson, B., Dubey, M.K., Jeffery, C.A., The potential impacts of pollution on a nondrizzling stratus deck: Does aerosol number matter more than type? J.Geophys.Res., 113, p. 19204. , doi:101029/2007JD009445; Baldocchi, D.D., White, R., Johnston, J.W., A wind tunnel study to design large, open-top chambers for wholetree pollutant exposure experiments J.Air Pollut.Control Assoc., 39, pp. 1549-1556; Cunningham, P., Linn, R.R., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Dynamics of fire spread J.Geophys.Res., 112, p. 05108. , doi:101029/2006JD007638; Davis, J.M., Riordan, A.J., Lawson, R.E., A wind tunnel study of the flow field within and around open-top chambers used for air pollution studies Bound.-Layer Meteor., 25, pp. 193-214; Fadlun, E.A., Verzicco, R., Orlandi, P., Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed-boundary finite-difference methods for three-dimensional complex flow simulations J.Comput.Phys., 161, pp. 35-60; Frederich, O., Wassen, E., Thiele, F., Prediction of the flow around a short wall-mounted finite cylinder using LES and DES J.Numer.Anal.Ind.Appl.Math., 3, pp. 231-247; Fr{\"o}hlich, J., Rodi, W., LES of the flow around a circular cylinder of finite height Int.J.Heat Fluid Flow, 25, pp. 537-548; Hain, R., K{\"a}hler, C.J., Michaelis, D., Tomographic and time resolved PIV measurements on a finite cylinder mounted on a flat plate Exp.Fluids, 45, pp. 715-724; Hanson, P.J., Childs, K.W., Wullschleger, S.D., Riggs, J.S., Thomas, W.K., Todd, D.E., Warren, J.M., A method for experimental heating of intact soil profiles for application to climate change experiments Global Change Biol., 17, pp. 1083-1096. , doi:101111/j.1365-2486.2010.02221.x; Heagle, A.S., Body, D.E., Heck, W.W., An open top field chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants J.Environ.Qual., 2, pp. 365-368; Hendrey, G.R., FACE: Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment for Plant Research in the Field , p. 264. , CRC PressHolroyd, R.J., On the behaviour of open-topped oil storage tanks in high winds, Part I.Aerodynamic aspects J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 12, pp. 329-352; Kimball, B.A., Theory and performance of an infrared heater for ecosystem warming Global Change Biol., 11, pp. 2041-2056; Kimball, B.A., Pinter, P.J., Wall, G.W., Garcia, R.L., LaMorte, R.L., Jak, P.M.C., Frumau, K.F.A., Vugts, H.F., Comparisons of responses of vegetation to elevated carbon dioxide in free-air and open-top chamber facilities , pp. 113-130. , Advances in Carbon Dioxide Effects Research, L.H.Allen et al., Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of AmericaKimball, B.A., Kobayashi, K., Bindi, M., Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment Adv.Agron., 77, pp. 293-368; Kimball, B.A., Conley, M.M., Wang, S., Lin, X., Luo, C., Morgan, J., Smith, D., Infrared heater arrays for warming ecosystem field plots Global Change Biol., 14, pp. 309-320; Lim, H.C., Thomas, T.G., Castro, I.P., Flow around a cube in a turbulent boundary layer: LES and experiment J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 97, pp. 96-109; Linn, R.R., A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior , p. 195. , Los Alamos National Laboratory Sci.Rep.LA-13334-TLinn, R.R., Cunningham, P., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Basic fire behavior and dependence on wind speed J.Geophys.Res., 110, p. 13107. , doi:101029/2004JD005597; Linn, R.R., Reisner, J.M., Colman, J.J., Winterkamp, J., Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC Int.J.Wildland Fire, 11, pp. 233-246; Lundquist, K.A., Chow, F.K., Lundquist, J.K., An immersed boundary method for the Weather Research and Forecasting model Mon.Wea.Rev., 138, pp. 796-817; Mayor, S.D., Spalart, P.R., Tripoli, G.J., Application of a perturbation recycling method in the large-eddy simulation of a mesoscale convective internal boundary layer J.Atmos.Sci., 59, pp. 2385-2395; Mittal, R., Iaccarino, G., Immersed boundary methods Annu.Rev.Fluid Mech., 37, pp. 239-261; Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed boundary/b-spline methods for simulations of flow in complex geometry , pp. 317-327. , Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford UniversityNijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Teughels, H., Blum, H., Hendrey, G., Impens, I., Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI): A new tool to study global warming effects on plants in the field Plant Cell Environ., 19, pp. 495-502; Nijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Heuer, M., Beyens, L., Trappeniers, K., Impens, I., Climate-warming simulation in tundra: Enhanced precision and repeatability with an improved infraredheating device Arct.Antarct.Alp.Res., 32, pp. 346-350; Norby, R.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Tree responses to elevated CO2 and the implications for forests , pp. 1-21. , Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems, G.W.Koch and H.A.Mooney, Eds., Academic PressNorby, R.J., Edwards, N.T., Riggs, J.S., Abner, C.H., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Temperature-controlled open-top chambers for global change research Global Change Biol., 3, pp. 259-267; Pasley, H., Clark, C., Computational fluid dynamics study of flow around floating-roof oil storage tanks J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 86, pp. 37-54; Pattenden, R.J., Turnock, S.R., Zhang, X., Measurements of the flow over a low-aspect-ratio cylinder mounted on a ground plane Exp.Fluids, 39, pp. 10-21; Pattenden, R.J., Bressloff, N.., Turnock, S.R., Zhang, X., Unsteady simulations of the flow around a short surface-mounted cylinder Int.J.Numer.Methods Fluids, 53, pp. 895-914; Pimont, F., Dupuy, J.-L., Linn, R.R., Dupont, S., Validation of FIRETEC wind-flows over a canopy and a fuelbreak Int.J.Wildland Fire, 18, pp. 775-790; Pope, S.B., Turbulent Flows , p. 806. , Cambridge University PressReisner, J.M., Jeffery, C.A., A smooth cloud model Mon.Wea.Rev., 137, pp. 1825-1843; Reisner, J.M., Wynne, S., Margolin, L., Linn, R.R., Coupled atmospheric-fire modeling employing the method of averages Mon.Wea.Rev., 128, pp. 3683-3691; Reisner, J.M., Mousseau, V., Wyszogrodzki, A., Knoll, D., A fully implicit hurricane model with physics-based preconditioning Mon.Wea.Rev., 133, pp. 1003-1022; Rogers, H.H., Heck, W.W., Heagle, A.S., A field technique for the study of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations J.Air Pollut.Control Assoc., 33, pp. 42-44; Roh, S.C., Park, S.O., Vortical flow over the free end surface of a finite circular cylinder mounted on a flat plate Exp.Fluids, 34, pp. 63-67; Schmitt, F., Ruck, B., Flow visualisation studies of aerodynamic characteristics of an open-top chamber Environ.Pollut., 48, pp. 223-233; Shaw, R.H., Patton, E.G., Canopy element influences on resolved-and subgrid-scale energy within a large-eddy simulation Agric.For.Meteor., 115, pp. 5-17; Smith, W.S., Reisner, J.M., Kao, C.-Y.J., Simulations of flow around a cubical building: Comparison with towing-tank data and assessment of radiatively induced thermal effects Atmos.Environ., 35, pp. 3811-3821; Thomas, T.G., Williams, J.J.R., Generating a wind environment for large eddy simulation of bluff body flows J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 82, pp. 189-208; Tseng, Y.-H., Ferziger, J.H., A ghost-cell immersed boundary for flow in complex geometry J.Comput.Phys., 192, pp. 593-623; Tseng, Y.-H., Meneveu, C., Parlange, M.B., Modeling flow around bluff bodies and predicting urban dispersion using large eddy simulation Environ.Sci.Technol., 40, pp. 2653-2662",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1175/JAMC-D-12-041.1",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "1716--1737",
journal = "Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology",
issn = "1558-8424",
publisher = "American Meteorological Society",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low-aspect-ratio cylindrical open-top chambers

AU - Cunningham, P.

AU - Linn, Rodman R.

AU - Koo, Eunmo

AU - Wilson, Cathy J.

N1 - Cited By :2 Export Date: 16 May 2017 Correspondence Address: Cunningham, P.; Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, EES-16, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, United States; email: pcunning@lanl.gov References: Andrejczuk, M., Reisner, J.M., Henson, B., Dubey, M.K., Jeffery, C.A., The potential impacts of pollution on a nondrizzling stratus deck: Does aerosol number matter more than type? J.Geophys.Res., 113, p. 19204. , doi:101029/2007JD009445; Baldocchi, D.D., White, R., Johnston, J.W., A wind tunnel study to design large, open-top chambers for wholetree pollutant exposure experiments J.Air Pollut.Control Assoc., 39, pp. 1549-1556; Cunningham, P., Linn, R.R., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Dynamics of fire spread J.Geophys.Res., 112, p. 05108. , doi:101029/2006JD007638; Davis, J.M., Riordan, A.J., Lawson, R.E., A wind tunnel study of the flow field within and around open-top chambers used for air pollution studies Bound.-Layer Meteor., 25, pp. 193-214; Fadlun, E.A., Verzicco, R., Orlandi, P., Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed-boundary finite-difference methods for three-dimensional complex flow simulations J.Comput.Phys., 161, pp. 35-60; Frederich, O., Wassen, E., Thiele, F., Prediction of the flow around a short wall-mounted finite cylinder using LES and DES J.Numer.Anal.Ind.Appl.Math., 3, pp. 231-247; Fröhlich, J., Rodi, W., LES of the flow around a circular cylinder of finite height Int.J.Heat Fluid Flow, 25, pp. 537-548; Hain, R., Kähler, C.J., Michaelis, D., Tomographic and time resolved PIV measurements on a finite cylinder mounted on a flat plate Exp.Fluids, 45, pp. 715-724; Hanson, P.J., Childs, K.W., Wullschleger, S.D., Riggs, J.S., Thomas, W.K., Todd, D.E., Warren, J.M., A method for experimental heating of intact soil profiles for application to climate change experiments Global Change Biol., 17, pp. 1083-1096. , doi:101111/j.1365-2486.2010.02221.x; Heagle, A.S., Body, D.E., Heck, W.W., An open top field chamber to assess the impact of air pollution on plants J.Environ.Qual., 2, pp. 365-368; Hendrey, G.R., FACE: Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment for Plant Research in the Field , p. 264. , CRC PressHolroyd, R.J., On the behaviour of open-topped oil storage tanks in high winds, Part I.Aerodynamic aspects J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 12, pp. 329-352; Kimball, B.A., Theory and performance of an infrared heater for ecosystem warming Global Change Biol., 11, pp. 2041-2056; Kimball, B.A., Pinter, P.J., Wall, G.W., Garcia, R.L., LaMorte, R.L., Jak, P.M.C., Frumau, K.F.A., Vugts, H.F., Comparisons of responses of vegetation to elevated carbon dioxide in free-air and open-top chamber facilities , pp. 113-130. , Advances in Carbon Dioxide Effects Research, L.H.Allen et al., Eds., American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of AmericaKimball, B.A., Kobayashi, K., Bindi, M., Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2 enrichment Adv.Agron., 77, pp. 293-368; Kimball, B.A., Conley, M.M., Wang, S., Lin, X., Luo, C., Morgan, J., Smith, D., Infrared heater arrays for warming ecosystem field plots Global Change Biol., 14, pp. 309-320; Lim, H.C., Thomas, T.G., Castro, I.P., Flow around a cube in a turbulent boundary layer: LES and experiment J.Wind Eng.Ind.Aerodyn., 97, pp. 96-109; Linn, R.R., A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior , p. 195. , Los Alamos National Laboratory Sci.Rep.LA-13334-TLinn, R.R., Cunningham, P., Numerical simulations of grass fires using a coupled atmosphere-fire model: Basic fire behavior and dependence on wind speed J.Geophys.Res., 110, p. 13107. , doi:101029/2004JD005597; Linn, R.R., Reisner, J.M., Colman, J.J., Winterkamp, J., Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC Int.J.Wildland Fire, 11, pp. 233-246; Lundquist, K.A., Chow, F.K., Lundquist, J.K., An immersed boundary method for the Weather Research and Forecasting model Mon.Wea.Rev., 138, pp. 796-817; Mayor, S.D., Spalart, P.R., Tripoli, G.J., Application of a perturbation recycling method in the large-eddy simulation of a mesoscale convective internal boundary layer J.Atmos.Sci., 59, pp. 2385-2395; Mittal, R., Iaccarino, G., Immersed boundary methods Annu.Rev.Fluid Mech., 37, pp. 239-261; Mohd-Yusof, J., Combined immersed boundary/b-spline methods for simulations of flow in complex geometry , pp. 317-327. , Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, NASA Ames/Stanford UniversityNijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Teughels, H., Blum, H., Hendrey, G., Impens, I., Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI): A new tool to study global warming effects on plants in the field Plant Cell Environ., 19, pp. 495-502; Nijs, I., Kockelbergh, F., Heuer, M., Beyens, L., Trappeniers, K., Impens, I., Climate-warming simulation in tundra: Enhanced precision and repeatability with an improved infraredheating device Arct.Antarct.Alp.Res., 32, pp. 346-350; Norby, R.J., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Tree responses to elevated CO2 and the implications for forests , pp. 1-21. , Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems, G.W.Koch and H.A.Mooney, Eds., Academic PressNorby, R.J., Edwards, N.T., Riggs, J.S., Abner, C.H., Wullschleger, S.D., Gunderson, C.A., Temperature-controlled open-top chambers for global change research Global Change Biol., 3, pp. 259-267; 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PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed boundary method, and the ambient flow in which the OTCs are embedded is representative of a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. Results from the LES model show that the flow inside OTCs depends strongly on the height of the chamber wall. In particular, as chamber height increases the flow impinging on the upstream wall is deflected more in the vertical direction, a stronger recirculation flow develops inside the chamber, turbulence intensities are greater, and there is stronger vertical transport and mixing within the OTC, even at or near the ground. For low wall heights (i.e., very low aspect ratios), however, the flow impinging on the OTC is only diverted weakly in the vertical direction; aside from a small recirculation zone inside the OTC near the upstream wall and a small region near the downstream wall as the flow separates from the ground, there is minimal vertical mixing and the turbulence intensities are small. The results of these simulations, while general in nature, are particularly relevant to design considerations for manipulative field experiments in highly heterogeneous, low-stature ecosystems such as Arctic shrubs and grasses. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

AB - The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed boundary method, and the ambient flow in which the OTCs are embedded is representative of a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. Results from the LES model show that the flow inside OTCs depends strongly on the height of the chamber wall. In particular, as chamber height increases the flow impinging on the upstream wall is deflected more in the vertical direction, a stronger recirculation flow develops inside the chamber, turbulence intensities are greater, and there is stronger vertical transport and mixing within the OTC, even at or near the ground. For low wall heights (i.e., very low aspect ratios), however, the flow impinging on the OTC is only diverted weakly in the vertical direction; aside from a small recirculation zone inside the OTC near the upstream wall and a small region near the downstream wall as the flow separates from the ground, there is minimal vertical mixing and the turbulence intensities are small. The results of these simulations, while general in nature, are particularly relevant to design considerations for manipulative field experiments in highly heterogeneous, low-stature ecosystems such as Arctic shrubs and grasses. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

KW - Design considerations

KW - Height-to-diameter ratio

KW - Immersed boundary methods

KW - Large-eddy simulation models

KW - Re-circulation flow

KW - Turbulence intensity

KW - Vertical transports

KW - Very low aspect ratios

KW - Large eddy simulation

KW - Mixing

KW - Turbulence

KW - Aspect ratio

KW - airflow

KW - atmospheric structure

KW - atmospheric transport

KW - large eddy simulation

KW - turbulence

KW - turbulent boundary layer

KW - vertical mixing

KW - Arctic

KW - Poaceae

U2 - 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-041.1

DO - 10.1175/JAMC-D-12-041.1

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 1716

EP - 1737

JO - Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology

JF - Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology

SN - 1558-8424

IS - 8

ER -