Isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance in the Yo-Yo test: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Jozo Grgic, Alessandro Garofolinia, Craig Pickering, Michael Duncan, Grant Tinsley, Juan Del Coso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies exploring the effects of caffeine and/or sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A total of six databases were searched, and random-effects meta-analyses were performed examining the isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test. Results: After reviewing 988 search records, 15 studies were included. For the effects of caffeine on performance in the Yo-Yo test, the meta-analysis indicated a significant favoring of caffeine as compared with the placebo conditions (p = 0.022; standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.32; +7.5%). Subgroup analyses indicated that the effects of caffeine were significant for the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test, but not level 1. Four out of the five studies that explored the effects of sodium bicarbonate used the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test. The pooled SMD favored the sodium bicarbonate condition as compared with the placebo/control conditions (p = 0.007; SMD: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.63; +16.0%). Conclusions: This review demonstrates that isolated ingestion of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in the Yo-Yo test. Given these ergogenic effects, the intake of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate before the Yo-Yo test needs to be standardized (i.e., either restricted or used in the same way before each testing session). Furthermore, the results suggest that individuals competing in sports involving intermittent exercise may consider supplementing with caffeine or sodium bicarbonate for acute improvements in performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-press)
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine and Sport
Volume(In-press)
Early online date21 Aug 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Aug 2019

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Sodium Bicarbonate
Caffeine
Meta-Analysis
Eating
Performance-Enhancing Substances
Placebos
Sports
Databases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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Isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance in the Yo-Yo test: A systematic review and meta-analysis. / Grgic, Jozo; Garofolinia, Alessandro ; Pickering, Craig; Duncan, Michael; Tinsley, Grant; Del Coso, Juan.

In: Journal of Science and Medicine and Sport, Vol. (In-press), 21.08.2019, p. (In-press).

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Grgic, Jozo ; Garofolinia, Alessandro ; Pickering, Craig ; Duncan, Michael ; Tinsley, Grant ; Del Coso, Juan. / Isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance in the Yo-Yo test: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In: Journal of Science and Medicine and Sport. 2019 ; Vol. (In-press). pp. (In-press).
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abstract = "Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies exploring the effects of caffeine and/or sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A total of six databases were searched, and random-effects meta-analyses were performed examining the isolated effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on performance in the Yo-Yo test. Results: After reviewing 988 search records, 15 studies were included. For the effects of caffeine on performance in the Yo-Yo test, the meta-analysis indicated a significant favoring of caffeine as compared with the placebo conditions (p = 0.022; standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.17; 95{\%} CI: 0.08, 0.32; +7.5{\%}). Subgroup analyses indicated that the effects of caffeine were significant for the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test, but not level 1. Four out of the five studies that explored the effects of sodium bicarbonate used the level 2 version of the Yo-Yo test. The pooled SMD favored the sodium bicarbonate condition as compared with the placebo/control conditions (p = 0.007; SMD: 0.36; 95{\%} CI: 0.10, 0.63; +16.0{\%}). Conclusions: This review demonstrates that isolated ingestion of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate enhances performance in the Yo-Yo test. Given these ergogenic effects, the intake of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate before the Yo-Yo test needs to be standardized (i.e., either restricted or used in the same way before each testing session). Furthermore, the results suggest that individuals competing in sports involving intermittent exercise may consider supplementing with caffeine or sodium bicarbonate for acute improvements in performance.",
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