Investigating what level of visual information inspires trust in a user of a highly automated vehicle

Rachel H.Y. Ma, Andrew Morris, Paul Herriotts, Stewart Birrell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)
    126 Downloads (Pure)


    The aim of this research is to investigate whether visual feedback alone can affect a driver's trust in an autonomous vehicle, and in particular, what level of feedback (no feedback vs. moderate feedback vs. high feedback) will evoke the appropriate level of trust. Before conducting the experiment, the Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) were piloted with two sets of six participants (before and after iterations), to ensure the meaning of the displays can be understood by all. A static driving simulator experiment was conducted with a sample of 30 participants (between 18 and 55). Participants completed two pre-study questionnaires to evaluate previous driving experience, and attitude to trust in automation. During the study, participants completed a trust questionnaire after each simulated scenario to assess their trust level in the autonomous vehicle and HMI displays, and on intention to use and acceptance. The participants were shown 10 different driving scenarios that lasted approximately 2 minutes each. Results indicated that the ‘high visual feedback’ group recorded the highest trust ratings, with this difference significantly higher than for the ‘no visual feedback’ group (U = .000; p =
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number103272
    JournalApplied Ergonomics
    Early online date3 Oct 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Ergonomics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Applied Ergonomics, 90, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2020.103272

    © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


    • Autonomous vehicles
    • Driving simulator
    • HMI
    • Trust
    • Visual feedback

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Human Factors and Ergonomics
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
    • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
    • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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