Investigating total entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial intention in Africa regions using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)

Malcolm J Beynon, Paul Jones, David Pickernell, Gideon Maas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


This study offers a novel evaluation of the conditions for Total Entrpreneurial Activity (TEA) and Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) across 59 Sub-Saharan African regions. The analysis employs fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2013) survey data using five condition variables, measuring regional-level entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions, including education level, considered against TEA and EI. This novel regional contribution identifies diversity between African countries and regions for entrepreneurial actvities and its drivers, with several groups identified. This highlights a requirement for future research encompassing further countries and regions in African, and also multi-year studies that can track these issues longitudinally. The study informs knowledge and practice regarding entrepreneurial behaviour across African regions. Through examination of the different combinations of condition variables, across causal recipes, it provides understanding of variations in the socio-cultural drivers of entrepreneurial activity between regions, groups of regions, and countries, for TEA and EI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-164
Number of pages19
JournalSmall Enterprise Research
Issue number2
Early online date27 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Small Enterprise Research, on 27/04/2021, available online:

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold


  • Africa
  • FsQCA
  • entrepreneurial activity
  • entrepreneurial intention
  • regions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Business and International Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation
  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Development
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)


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