Investigating the Detection Capability of Acoustic Emission Monitoring to Identify Imperfections Produced by the Metal Active Gas (MAG) Welding Process

James Marcus Griffin, Steven Jones, Bama Perumal, Carl Perrin

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Abstract

Welding inspection is a critical process that can be severely time-consuming, resulting in productivity delays, especially when destructive or invasive processes are required. This paper defines the novel approach to investigate the physical correlation between common imperfections found in arc welding and the propensity to determine these through the identification of signatures using acoustic emission sensors. Through a set of experiments engineered to induce prominent imperfections (cracks and other anomalies) using a popular welding process and the use of AE technology (both airborne and contact), it provides confirmation that the verification of physical anomalies can indeed be identified through variations in obtained noise frequency signatures. This in situ information provides signals during and after solidification to inform operators of the deposit/HAZ integrity to support the advanced warning of unwanted anomalies and of whether the weld/fabrication process should be halted to undertake rework before completing the fabrication. Experimentation was carried out based on an acceptable set of parameters where extracted data from the sensors were recorded, analysed, and compared with the resultant microstructure. This may allow signal phenomena to be captured and catalogued for future use in referencing against known anomalies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)714-745
Number of pages32
JournalAcoustics
Volume5
Issue number3
Early online date20 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Keywords

  • acoustic emission
  • airborne microphones
  • metal active gas (MAG) welding
  • cold metal transfer (CMT
  • short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs)
  • non-destructive testing (NDT)
  • elastic waves
  • rise time and crack detection

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