Interaction between major dietary patterns and cardiorespiratory fitness on metabolic syndrome in Iranian adults: a cross-sectional study

Hossein Shahinfar, Mahtab Ghanbari, Yahya Jalilpiran, Nastaran Payande, Mahshid Shahavandi, Nadia Babaei, Cain Clark, Kurosh Djafarian, Sakineh Shab-Bidar

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    BACKGROUND: Several researches have been conducted on the associations between diet and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and major cardiovascular risk factors. However, there is no report about the interaction between major dietary patterns and CRF on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. To investigate the combined association of major dietary patterns and CRF on MetS and its components.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 270 apparently healthy adults living in Tehran, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). CRF was assessed using a graded exercise treadmill test. Socio-economic status, anthropometric measures, biochemical parameters, and blood pressure were evaluated according to standard methods. Major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis.

    RESULTS: Three major identified dietary patterns were (healthy, mixed, and western). Significant positive association was found between mixed dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.68, 95% CI (1.92,7.78), P = 0.04). There were not relations between tertiles of identified dietary patterns and remained outcomes. Those who had higher adherence to mixed pattern with also higher CRF showed a significant decrease for diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01). Also we found that there was no significant interaction between any of dietary patterns and CRF on odds of MetS.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, adherence to mixed dietary pattern in this population was associated with increasing odds of MetS. However, nor CRF neither the combination of dietary patterns and CRF was related to the odds of MetS among Iranian adults. More studies are needed to clarify these associations and to consider interpersonal determinants.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number36
    Number of pages17
    JournalNutrition Journal
    Issue number1
    Early online date13 Apr 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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    • Cardiorespiratory fitness
    • Dietary pattern
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • VO2max

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (miscellaneous)
    • Nutrition and Dietetics


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