Instantaneous vehicle fuel consumption estimation using smartphones and Recurrent Neural Networks

Stratis Kanarachos, Jino Mathew, Michael Fitzpatrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)
456 Downloads (Pure)


The high level of air pollution in urban areas, caused in no small extent by road transport, requires the implementation of continuous and accurate monitoring techniques if emissions are to be minimized. The primary motivation for this paper is to enable fine spatiotemporal monitoring based on crowd sensing, whereby the instantaneous fuel consumption of a vehicle is estimated using smartphone measurements. To this end, a surrogate method based on indirect monitoring using Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) that process a smartphone's GPS position, speed, altitude, acceleration and number of visible satellites is proposed. Extensive field trials were conducted to gather smartphone and fuel consumption data at a wide range of driving conditions. Two different RNN types were explored, and a parametric analysis was performed to define a suitable architecture. Various training methods for tuning the RNN were evaluated based on performance and computational burden. The resulting estimator was compared with others found in the literature, and the results confirm its superior performance. The potential impact of the proposed method is noteworthy as it can facilitate accurate monitoring of in-use vehicle fuel consumption and emissions at large scales by exploiting available smartphone measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)436-447
Number of pages12
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Early online date4 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Expert Systems with Applications. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Expert Systems with Applications, [[120,] (2019)] DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2018.12.006
© 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Optimisation
  • Recurrent neural networks
  • Smartphone data
  • Soft sensor
  • Training
  • Vehicle fuel consumption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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