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The high level of air pollution in urban areas, caused in no small extent by road transport, requires the implementation of continuous and accurate monitoring techniques if emissions are to be minimized. The primary motivation for this paper is to enable fine spatiotemporal monitoring based on crowd sensing, whereby the instantaneous fuel consumption of a vehicle is estimated using smartphone measurements. To this end, a surrogate method based on indirect monitoring using Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) that process a smartphone's GPS position, speed, altitude, acceleration and number of visible satellites is proposed. Extensive field trials were conducted to gather smartphone and fuel consumption data at a wide range of driving conditions. Two different RNN types were explored, and a parametric analysis was performed to define a suitable architecture. Various training methods for tuning the RNN were evaluated based on performance and computational burden. The resulting estimator was compared with others found in the literature, and the results confirm its superior performance. The potential impact of the proposed method is noteworthy as it can facilitate accurate monitoring of in-use vehicle fuel consumption and emissions at large scales by exploiting available smartphone measurements.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Expert Systems with Applications|
|Early online date||4 Dec 2018|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Apr 2019|
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Expert Systems with Applications. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Expert Systems with Applications, [[120,] (2019)] DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2018.12.006
© 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
- Recurrent neural networks
- Smartphone data
- Soft sensor
- Vehicle fuel consumption
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science Applications
- Artificial Intelligence
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iVMS: Intelligent Variable Messaging System
Haas, O., Perraki, G., Fofana, A., Esugo, M., Kanarachos, S., Christopoulos, S., Henry, N. & Jones, A.
1/06/16 → 30/03/18