Innovative sports-embedded gambling promotion: A study of spectators’ enjoyment and gambling intention during XFL games

Zimu Xu, Maria Gonzalez-Serrano, Rocco Porreca, Paul Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
113 Downloads (Pure)


The sports industry has continued to grow on the basis of innovative practices. One such recent innovation in sport was the introduction of live on-screen betting odds during XFL game broadcasts. Such a service had never before been offered in the United States. This paper examines the impact of these live on-screen betting odds on fan engagement and consumer experience (increased spectator enjoyment and gambling intention) during the XFL season. Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis reveals interesting results. For both increased spectator enjoyment and high levels of gambling intention, the combination of high levels of perceived enjoyment, excitement expectancy, and escape expectancy has the highest explanatory capacity. Moreover, increased XFL spectator enjoyment is associated with gambling intention. These findings highlight the power of mediated sport to generate excitement among sports consumers. The findings also provide new knowledge regarding the use of sports-embedded gambling promotion. The progressive use of innovative strategies to increase the perceived enjoyment of XFL spectators when they see live on-screen betting odds during televised XFL games can enhance their gambling intention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-216
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Business Research
Early online date15 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

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  • Innovation
  • Sports
  • Gambling promotion
  • Consumer experience
  • Fan engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Marketing


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